THESE ARE THE RELIGIONS WE TALKED ABOUT THIS SEMESTER

 

WORLD RELIGIONS – REL 212 World Religions

 

 

HINDUISM   & JAINISM

WEEK   2

 

Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe

No specific origin or founder

 

Nature of God/Creator

Gods are in male and female form and   represent many different things

 

View of Human Nature

Karma, what comes around goes around

 

View of Good & Evil

good actions have good effects, bad actions   have bad effects

 

View of Salvation

Moksha is when an enlightened human being is   freed from the cycle of life-and-death (the endless cycle of death and   reincarnation) and comes into a state of completeness. He then becomes one   with God.

 

View of After Life

Samsara-reincarnation

 

Practices and Rituals

Sculptures;images;Home   shrines;Meditation;Ayurveda;Hatha Yoga;Kundalini Yoga;Puja (Pooja)

 

Celebrations & Festivals

Raksha Bandhan;Krishna Janmashthami;Ganesh   Chaturthi;Shiv Ratri;The Onam Carnival;Vasant Panchami;Guru Purnima;Karwa   Chauth;Bhai Dooj;Vasanta Navaratri;The Kumbh & Ardhkumbh

 

Week 2   – Sources

http://www.hinduwisdom.info/Hindu_Cosmology.htm

 

 

 

BUDDHISM

WEEK   3

 

Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe

Beginning of this world   and of life is inconceivable, since they have neither beginning nor end

 

Nature of God/Creator

do not believe in the concept of a personal   God

 

View of Human Nature

Dependent origination, or dependent arising,   is a formulation that is central to Buddhist philosophy

 

View of Good & Evil

Conditions which arise in the mind, producing   results initially in the mind, and from there to external actions and   physical features. Good and evil are innate, inseparable aspects   of life.

 

View of Salvation

Salvation is liberation from such bondage   through the transformation of our consciousness and our awakening to our true   nature. The Buddhist path to salvation does not go through prayers, but is   rather based on deeds including mental culture through meditation. For a   Buddhist salvation is reaching Nirvana.

 

View of After Life

The Buddhist view is that there is no soul,   as it is understood in the Judeo-Christian or scholastic philosophy   traditions. after death one is either reborn into another body (reincarnated)   or enters nirvana

 

Practices and Rituals

Meditation;Mantras;Mudras;Prayer wheels

 

Celebrations & Festivals

• Buddhist   New Year

• Buddha’s   Birthday is known as Vesak or Visakah Puja

• Songkran-(essentially   a cleansing of life by cleaning homes and washing clothes etc.)

• The   Ploughing Festival(May, when the moon is half-full, two white oxen pull a   gold painted plough, followed by four girls dressed in white who scatter rice   seeds from gold and silver baskets. This is to celebrate the Buddha’s first   moment of enlightenment)

• Loy   Krathong: When the rivers and canals are full of water, this festival takes   place in all parts of Thailand on the full moon night of the twelfth lunar   month. Bowls made with leaves, candles, and incense sticks, are placed in the   water, and represent bad luck disappearing.

 

Week 3 – Sources

http://www.urbandharma.org/udharma5/goodevil.html

http://www.patheos.com/Library/Buddhism/Beliefs/Human-Nature-and-the-Purpose-of-Existence

http://shindharmanet.com/salvation2/

 

 

DAOISM   & CONFUCIANISM

WEEK   4

 

Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe

It makes some reference to the origin of   the world through the interaction of the forces of Ying and Yang. There are   no stories about the origin of human beings.

 

Nature of God/Creator

They believe that God is loving and benign

 

View of Human Nature

The purpose of existence is to reach one’s highest   potential as a human being. Through a rigorous process of self-cultivation   that lasts a lifetime, one may eventually become a “perfected   person.”

 

View of Good & Evil

Suffering and evil are inevitable in human   life, and can promote learning and growth. A mistake is not a   “sin,” but an opportunity to learn and do better next time.

 

View of Salvation

Confucians don’t ordinarily hold convictions   about the individual salvation or condemnation of persons past this life. Death   is neither dreaded nor desired in Daoism rather a person appreciates living.

 

View of After Life

Confucianism regards both life and death as a   responsibility to society, while Daoism (Taoism) holds that both life and   death should be in conformity to nature.

 

Practices and Rituals

Aside from its important ethical principles,   Confucianism does not prescribe any specific rituals or practices. These are   filled by the practices of Chinese religion, Taoism, Buddhism, or other   religion which Confucians follow.

 

Celebrations & Festivals

· The 28th day of September is the birthday of   Confucius.

· The Chinese Ching Ming Festival, also called,   Ancestor Day

· The Qufu International Confucius Festival is   celebrated annually between September 26th and October 10

 

Week 4 – Sources

http://religions.findthebest.com/q/4/1464/What-is-the-nature-of-god-according-to-Confucianism

http://www.patheos.com/Library/Confucianism/Beliefs/Human-Nature-and-the-Purpose-of-Existence.html#ixzz38hI0maX2

http://www.crvp.org/book/series03/iii-3/appendix_b_theories_of_life_and_.htm

 

 

WEEK   5

SHINTO

 

Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe

In the Kojiki it states:   ” At the time of the beginning of heaven and earth” and does not   refer to whatever may have preceded the separation of Heaven and Earth, but   simply suggests that something already existed

 

Nature of God/Creator

Kami are the spirits or phenomena that are   worshipped in the religion of Shinto. They are elements in nature, animals,   creationary forces in the universe, as well as spirits of the revered   deceased. Many Kami are considered the ancient ancestors of entire clans, and   some ancestors became Kami upon their death if they were able to embody the   values and virtues of Kami in life.

 

View of Human Nature

In Shintō it is commonly said that “man is   kami’s child.”

 

View of Good & Evil

Purity is at the heart of Shinto’s   understanding of good and evil.

 

View of Salvation

The concept of salvation is based on the   belief that all living things have an essence, soul or spirit known as   “kami.”

 

View of After Life

After death, a person becomes a spirit-deity,   eventually joining in a great ancestral collective which is the manifestation   of the great Divine. Shinto followers place little emphasis on death and what   happens after it

 

Practices and Rituals

Shinto rituals are a central component of   most of the national festivals in Japan, as well as of the more specialized   events at particular shrines and other sacred sites. Most often they are   performed by male priests who are assisted by a female shrine functionary   called a miko, who often is a shaman.

 

Celebrations & Festivals

The main Shintō rites and festivals are for   celebrating the New Year, child birth, coming of age, planting and havest,   weddings, and groundbreaking ceremonies for new buildings

 

Week 5 – Sources

http://eos.kokugakuin.ac.jp/modules/xwords/entry.php?entryID=1319

http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/shinto-festivals.html

 

http://lifeafterdeath.com/life-after-death-shinto/

 

WEEK   6

JUDAISM

 

Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe

A Divine singular God   made all that exists

 

Nature of God/Creator

He is a single, whole, complete indivisible   entity. Judaism completely rejects the dualistic notion that evil was created   by Satan or some other deity.

 

View of Human Nature

Humans were created in the image of God. People   have the ability to choose which impulse to follow: the good impulse or the   evil impulse. That is the heart of the Jewish understanding of free will.

 

View of Good & Evil

In Judaism good and evil are spoken of as   light and darkness.

 

View of Salvation

Salvation comes from the Lord and is a favor   bestowed upon the nation as a whole.

 

View of After Life

Jewish teachings on the subject of afterlife   are sparse: The Torah, the most important Jewish text, has no clear reference   to afterlife at all.

 

Practices and Rituals

· Circumcision

· Havdalah (includes Havdalah service)

· Kashrut (dietary traditions: keeping kosher)

 

Celebrations & Festivals

· Shabbat – considered the most important of   all Jewish holidays

· Rosh Hashanah – Jewish New Year

· Yom Kippur – Jewish Day of Atonement

· Sukkot – seven–day festival celebrates the   fall harvest

· Shemini Atzeret – a festive day after the   week-long festival of Sukkot

· Hanukkah – 8–day Jewish winter festival

 

Week 6 – Sources

http://www.jewfaq.org/g-d.htm

http://scheinerman.net/judaism/Rituals/index.html

http://www.pjcc.org/jewishlife/holidays/jewish-holidays-explained.html

 

 

WEEK   7

CHRISTIANITY

 

Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe

Christianity inherited the Jewish cosmology   that God is the creative force, or power, and created everything himself. God created all things through a series of   acts, or methodology, described in the Bible.

 

Nature of God/Creator

God is unique, distinct, and unlike any other   concept of God. There is only one God, and God the Father, Jesus and the Holy   Spirit are all the same God.

 

View of Human Nature

Each person is a unique individual and has   the power to act under his/her own will. By design, human beings are in relation. They are in relation to their   environment, to God, to their neighbors, and to the larger human community.

 

View of Good & Evil

All goodness flows from God’s inherent   character, and evil is refusing to submit to His authority and love and serve   Him. Christians hold that moral evil stems   from rebellion against God, which results in injustice, vanity, pride,   dishonesty, aggression, violence, greed and more.

 

View of Salvation

Salvation is made possible by the sacrificial   death of Jesus Christ by crucifixion. As the judge of all, God will assess   each individual’s relationship to Christ; people risk a sentence of eternal   punishment and spiritual death, forever separated from God.

 

View of After Life

Majority of Christians believe in some kind   of heaven, in which the deceased enjoy the presence of God and loved ones for   eternity. A small majority of Christians believe in hell, a place of   suffering where unbelievers or sinners are punished. Catholic Christians also   believe in purgatory, a temporary place of punishment for Christians who have   died with unconfessed sins.

 

Practices and Rituals

Nearly all Christians will have been   baptized, either as an infant or as an adult, and regularly participate in   communion. The cross is important to   Christianity as well as Jesus Christ’s depiction of being hung upon that   cross.

 

Celebrations & Festivals

Lent, Easter and Christmas are the main   religious festivals of the Christian Year. The most important Christian   holiday is Easter, a spring festival that celebrates Christ’s resurrection   from the dead. The 40 days prior to Easter form the Lenten season, a time of   fasting and repentance. Christmas commemorates the birth of Jesus on   December 25.

 

Week 7 – Sources

http://www.themystica.com/mystica/articles/c/cosmology_christian.html

http://worldreligions2.tripod.com/id7.html

 

http://www.christinyou.net/pages/understandgod.html

http://people.opposingviews.com/christianity-beliefs-good-evil-2926.html

 

 

WEEK 8

ISLAM

 

Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe

Allah, the supreme being created everything   and everyone

 

Nature of God/Creator

Although the God of Islam has revealed his   will through the prophets, his actual nature remains ultimately unknowable. He   is transcendent and not a part of his creation, and is most often referred to   in terms and with names that emphasize his majesty and superiority.

 

View of Human Nature

Muslims believe humans are the greatest of   all creatures, created with free will for the purpose of obeying and serving   Allah.

 

View of Good & Evil

The Islamic definitions of good and evil are   based on the purposes of creation and the meaning of human life. The   ultimate goal of human life is to become perfected spiritually through belief   in God, the knowledge of God, the love of God, and the worship of God. Whatever   brings a person closer to God and will benefit him in the Next World is good,   and whatever takes a person away from God, and incur His anger is evil.

 

View of Salvation

In Islam, the purpose of life is to live in a   way that is pleasing to Allah so that one may gain Paradise. Unbelievers   (“those who are ungrateful”) and sinners will be condemned, but   genuine repentance results in Allah’s forgiveness and entrance into Paradise   upon death. Islam teaches that no one can gain salvation simply by virtue of   their belief or deeds, instead it is the Mercy of God, which merits them   salvation.

 

View of After Life

Islamic doctrine holds that human existence   continues after the death of the human body in the form of spiritual and   physical resurrection. Faith in life after death is one of the six   fundamental beliefs required of a Muslim to complete his faith. Rejecting it renders all other beliefs   meaningless.

 

Practices and Rituals

The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic arkan   ud-Din, “pillars of the faith”) are the five religious duties   expected of every Muslim.

· Shahada – The first of the Five   Pillars Shahada is the Muslim profession of faith, expressing the two simple,   fundamental beliefs that make one a Muslim: There is no god but   God and Muhammad is the prophet of God.

· Salat – ritual prayer which is performed five   times a day: at dawn, midday, afternoon, sunset and evening.

· Alms tax (zakat)

· Sawm – fasting, commemorates the revelation   of the Quran to humanity during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic year.

· Hajj – At least once in his or her lifetime,   each Muslim is expected to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca, the sacred city   of Islam.

Before performing certain rituals, most   importantly before prayers, Muslims are expected to perform a form of   purification

 

Celebrations & Festivals

Eid al-Fitr (1 Shawwal): The Celebration   concluding Ramadan. Ramadan, the month of fasting, ends with the festival of   Eid al-Fitr. Literally the “Festival of Breaking the Fast,” Eid   al-Fitr is one of the two most important Islamic celebrations (Eid al-Adha is   the other). Al-Hijra, the Islamic New Year, is celebrated   on the first day of Muharram, the month in which Muhammad emigrated from   Mecca to Medina. Ashura is an Islamic holiday observed on the 10th of   Muharram, the first month of the Islamic year.

 

Week 8 – Sources

http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/beliefs/human.htm

http://www.islamreligion.com/

 

http://www.questionsaboutislam.com/

http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/holidays

 

 

WEEK   9

SIKHISM

 

Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe

Sikhism teaches that only the creator knows   the origin of the universe.

 

Nature of God/Creator

Sikhism teaches the existence of one God, Ik   Onkar. First Guru Nanak taught that the creator and creation are inseparable   in the way that an ocean is made up of its individual drops.

 

View of Human Nature

Sikhs perceive human life as an opportunity   to merge with the divine will. However, the core problem is that human   judgment is occluded by a false sense of self.

 

View of Good & Evil

Only humans know the difference between right   and wrong, and can make moral choices

 

View of Salvation

In order to attain salvation one must live a   honest life and meditate on God. Sikhism shows the way to attain salvation   and become One with God. Sikhism instructs that you do not have to fast,   abstain, go on renunciation or enter a monastery in order to meet God. All   you have to do is have faith, recite the Name of God and remember Him for   each possible moment.

 

View of After Life

Sikhs do not believe in an afterlife in   either Heaven or Hell. Sikhism teaches that the soul reincarnates when the   body dies. Sikhs believe that good or bad actions, in this life, determine   the life form into which a soul takes rebirth.

 

Practices and Rituals

Baptism – Amrit; Marriage   – Anand Karaj; Naming of Children

 

Celebrations & Festivals

Guru Gobind Singh’s Birthday; Maghi; Hola   Maholla; Vaisakhi; Martyrdom of Guru Arjan; Celebration   of the Guru Granth Sahib; Guru Nanak’s Birthday; Martyrdom   of Guru Tegh Bahadur

 

Week 9 – Sources

http://sikhism.about.com/od/sikhism101/qt/Creation.htm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/rs/god/sigoodandevilrev2.shtml

http://sikhism.about.com/od/sikhism101/qt/Sikh_Afterlife.htm

 

http://www.patheos.com/Library/Sikhism/Beliefs/Human-Nature-and-the-Purpose-of-Existence.html

http://www.realsikhism.com/index.php?subaction=showfull&id=1248309169&ucat=7

http://www.sikhismguide.org/rites.aspx

 

WEEK   10

NEW   RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS

 

Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe

There is a higher being of some form.

 

Nature of God/Creator

Most believe that God is a higher being that   is benevolent and all seeing

 

View of Human Nature

human nature is that of a multitude of   choices in life and choices are made based on one’s beliefs

 

View of Good & Evil

good and evil exist everywhere, and choices   are where we make the choice between good and evil based on our life’s   choices

 

View of Salvation

Salvation can be achieved by attempting to   live a modest, humble life and doing as much good as possible.

 

View of After Life

Afterlife is extremely varied. Some do not   believe and others believe in a place similar to the heaven described in   Christianity and some also believe in a hell.

 

Practices and Rituals

Practices and rituals are very different from   religion to religion. Some believe in meditation, smoking marijuana, wearing   certain colors, etc.

 

Celebrations & Festivals

The celebrations are small and commonly   unheard of.

 

THIS IS THE ACTUAL ASSIGNMENT:

 

Choose ONE (1) category (origin of all things, nature of god, view of human nature, view of good and evil, etc.) from the chart to focus on for this assignment. Consider how the selected category relates to all of the religions covered and to your own social or work experiences.

Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:

  1. Select ONE (1) category from the completed World View Chart. Provide a rationale for choosing this category. What is compelling about this category? Why is it important in the study of religion?
  2. Describe the selected content and explain the significance of the selected category across all of the religions studied. Show in what ways the category is significant for each religion.
  3. Give an example of how you have noticed this category in your life, town or country. What impact does this category have in the everyday lives of people who practice religion in your area? (You do not have to give examples of all the religions in your area, just one you have noticed besides any you practice). For example, in Cincinnati, Ohio we have Hindu, Greek Orthodox, Catholic festivals in the summer. So if my category were “Festivals and Celebrations” I could use those events as my example.
  4. Use at least three (3) quality resources as references for the assignment and document your sources using APA Style for in-text citations and references. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.
  5. Write clearly and coherently using correct grammar, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics.