1.1. Background to the Study
Job satisfaction and well-being among employees have been a source of concern to organisations, management strategists and human relations departments in Nigeria, and perhaps globally. Robbin and Judge (2013) described job satisfaction as positive feelings about a job, resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. He further stated that a person with high level of job satisfaction holds positive feeling about his or her job, while person with low level holds negative feelings. Workers tend to have several challenges when performing their duties but when satisfied with their job, they are committed to their organisations. Akuegwu (2014) stated that there can be no sustainabe development without quality tertiary education. This is so because, it is in tertiary institution that human mind is trained to function effectively. It is not out of place to say that workers in such institutions must be socially, physically, emotionally and psychologically stable because of the task ahead of them.Non-academics staffs are faced with numerous constreaints when performing their duties. If the constraints are not properly managed it could affect their level of job satisfaction and well-being.
However, the motivation for this research work stemmed from the fact that it has become noticeable by the researcher that many non–academic staff of polytechnics in Nigeria slumed while on duty which may lead to disability or death before reaching the retirement age. Probing further into the cause of their slumming or death, the researcher investigated whether job demands, work-family conflict and social support have impact on job satisfaction and well-being of non-academic staff of polytechnics. The study of job satisfaction and well-being and its antecedents has increased among organisational researchers in and outside Nigeria in the past few years. This is particularly among employees in helping and services occupations such as hospitals, hotels, police force, call centres and schools (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2007; Burke & Mikkelsen, 2006; Ogungbamila, 2013). Job satisfaction is an attitudinal variable that reflects how people feel overall about their jobs, as well as various aspects of the jobs (Spector, 2012).
The concept of job satisfaction was first introduced by Landberger (1958) cited in Khoung and Tien (2013). Job satisfaction is the emotional reaction of an individual about their job. Mafini and Dlodio (2014) assert that job satisfaction is simply a perception of an individual regarding the different aspects of job at the work place. Job satisfaction has been well-defined as the level of gladness that a person feels about his or her work. In other words, job satisfaction is a collection of positive approaches, attitudes, and opinions that employees display towards their job at the workplace. Job satisfaction is dependent on a lot of factors within an individual’s control and it is known to influence not only employees but also organisations (Hollad, 2018). Job satisfaction is crucial as it is related to job performance and turnover in the 21st century and this has become a serious problem in the management of educational institutions (Anil, Kumar, & Agnihotri, 2013). This is because research has proved that employees with high job satisfaction exhibit high energy, pleasurable engagement and enthusiasm and employees with dissatisfaction show distress, unpleasant engagement and nervousness (Heller, Judge, & Watson, 2002).
(Naderi, 2013) reports that job satisfaction is the contentment employees feel concerning their work and the level they are at their job, while (Baral & Bhargava, 2010) contend that one of the most effective factors of job satisfaction is worker’s job content. They report that job satisfaction is often brought about by many factors such as achievement of set target within the workplace and recognition by the management. Baral, & Bhargava, (2010) also report that most employers of labour are now working on the aforementioned to improve work output from their employees to the extent that in recent time most employers make job satisfaction one of their top priorities which in turn and translates to better quality of work and later on to bigger profit to the organization. They further state that if employees are not satisfied with their job, then this may have negative impact on the workers’ well- being and productivity.
These days, for an organization to be successful and achieve its organizational objectives, it is imperative that its employees are satisfied with their work, since their work occupies an important place in their lives. Such conditions are likely to affect not only their physical but also a high level of social, psychological and spiritual well-being. Therefore, well-being is the state of acceptable level of good physical health, emotional and mental wellness (WHO, 2004). Well-being is all encompassing, referring to aspects of psychological, physical, health, financial, social well-being and the likes (WHO, 2004).Well-being refers to perceived and experienced satisfaction with life generally with domains of life such as work, finances, physical health and community (Dienner, 2006). Sears, Shi, and Coberley (2013) posit that well-being is a multidimensional composite of six domains: life evaluation, emotional health, physical health, healthy behaviours, work environment and basic access. However, Schulte, Pandalai, Wulsin, and Chun (2012) assert that workers well-being and safety are connected in other ways that may not be obvious. For instance, age and excess body fat put workers at risk for certain musculoskeletal disorders.
Yang, Fu, Zhao, and Zou, (2015) posit that well-being is an overall assessment of individuals quality of life as well as an important indicator of personal, physical, mental status and quality of life. Gandy, Cowberry, & Pope 2014; Sears, Shi, & Coberley (2013) report that well-being has been linked to a number of productivity outcomes for organisations, including job performance, absenteeism, presenteeism, short-term disability leave, intention to stay and voluntary turnover. Also, Sharpe, (2011) reports that income; labour market, housing and food security are important indicators of well-being not only at individual level but also at community level and population level. According to Harter, Schmidt, and Keyes, (2002) well- being of an employee does not necessarily relate solely to tangible factors such as salaries, increments or promotion. Rather, more broadly, the worker well-being is accompanied by the positive feelings and perceptions about work place that result in a happy and productive workforce. Mann (2004) as well as Shapiro and Hammer (2004) opine that due to the vital role well-being plays in the lives of workers, organisations, and institutions, employers of labour have seen the need to adopt policies that encourage staff to express their emotion and as this is a fundamental part of the job.
Well-being at job plays a vital role, not only for workers, but also for organisations, the economy and the social order confined (Berry, Mirabito, & Baun, 2010: Black, 2008; Danna & Griffin, 1999; Jeffrey, Mahony, Michaelson, & Abdallah, 2014). Although, there is no consensus around a single definition of well–being, there is general agreement that a minimum of well-being includes the presence of positive emotions and mood (for example contentment and happiness), the absence of negative emotions (e.g depression and anxiety), satisfaction with life, fulfillment and positive functioning. In other words, well-being generally includes global judgments of life satisfaction and feelings, ranging from depression to joy (Diener, Scollon, & Lucas, 2009; Frey & Stutzer 2002). Diener and Seligman (2004) observe that good living conditions such as housing and employment are fundamental to well-being. Gasper, (2007) conceptualizes well-being as externally assessed, approved, and thereby normatively endorsed, on feeling features of a person’s life. He also opines that the feelings and or judgments of the person whose well-being is being assessed place him on the well-being continuum.
Sumner, (2007) reports that well–being can be determined by economic indicators such as per capital income, poverty, and income inequality. Well-being integrates mental health (mind) and physical health (body) promotion. Well-being is associated with numerous health, job, family, and economics resulting in more holistic approaches to disease prevention and health -related benefits (Makomisile, 2010). For example, higher levels of well-being are associated with decreased risk of disease, illness, and injury; better immune functioning; speedier recovery; and increased longevity (Rauf & Ijaduola, 2012). Individuals with high levels of well-being are more productive at work and are more likely to contribute to their communities (Awosiyan, 2014).
Kaur (2013) asserts that well-being has progressed rapidly since the emergence of the field over five decades ago. Ogungbamila (2013) found out that work demand predicted the emotional, physical and psychological exhaustion of workers. Demerouti and Bakker (2011) posit that job demands are those physical, psychological, social or organizational aspects of job that require sustained physical and or psychological (cognitive and emotional) efforts and skills and are therefore associated with certain physiological and psychological cost. Pediwal (2011) affirms that the effect of job demand leads to job stress, employees’ absence from organization and loss of working hours. Amelia & Dorobantu (2012) posit that job demand is a growing concern in the current state of the economy in which workers on daily basis face conditions of overwork, job insecurity and low level of job commitment. Ajibola (2013) posit that work accounts for a significant portion of Nigerians’ daily lives and is increasingly recognized as a determinant of health status.
Corroborating this view, Adeyemo and Ogunyemi (2005) posit that workers, who are involved in high level of personal interaction such as nurses, are more vulnerable to occupational stress and burnout than those in product–oriented organisation. Previous research has demonstrated that job demands such as long work hours, work role ambiguity, work role conflict, shift work, physical and psychological effort, contribute to job strain which results in role overload and feeling overwhelmed and consequently contributes to work –family conflict. High demands at work increase the risk of experiencing work family conflicts. (Chung, 2011; Fagan, & Walthery, (2011). Work-family conflict is becoming an issue in the contemporary organisation. This is the reason why both work and family life of employees has continued to overlaped due to individual commitment to work, (Burke, Allen & Spector, 2002). Meetrz and Carr (2008) opine that there exists a relationship between lengthy working periods, obligation, and heavy labour on work-family conflict. Thus, there is the need to ensure balance between the two domains to facilitate efficiency and job satisfaction.
In Nigeria, female labour participation in paid jobs has risen drastically in the past few years, largely as a result of educational improvement (Ajiboye, 2008) suggesting that family structure is moving from traditional single-income family to a double-income family. The new family structure calls for multiple roles to be played within the family-work context resulting in role-conflicts caused by limited time among husband and wife. Ajala (2016) observes that dual-family employees experience work-family conflict and low life-work balance leading to lower job satisfaction, poor job performance and low quality of life. It is noted that the time committed to work contributes to conflict between employees’ work and family roles. Employees in professional positions experience greater intensity of work-to-family conflict while those working in non–professional positions experience greatest intensity of family-to-work conflict (Aminah, 2008). Cultural dictate in Nigeria, especially in the southern part of the country, demands that women should pay greater premium to their family roles more than anything else, including the workplace roles. Some husbands have forced their wives to resign from paid employments in order for the wives to take care of the homes.
The implication is that any slight family-work conflict may be resolved in favour of the family rather than the workplace and indication for possible poor performance of married women. Sao, (2012) posits that work-family conflict occurs when family demands and job demands are incompatible, and where one or both family and job suffer. Work-to-family conflict occurs when experience at work interferes with family life, like extensive irregular or inflexible work hours, work overload and other forms of job stress, interpersonal conflict at work, extensive travel, career transitions and unsupportive supervisors or organisation, for example, an unexpected meeting late in the day may prevent a parent from picking up his/her child from school. Work-family conflict increases as employees move upward in the managerial hierarchy. This may be due to the fact that senior workers do jobs that place greater responsibilities on their shoulders. As a result, they often take their work home and may feel that their family obligations hinder the fulfillment of their tasks (Patel, Govender, Paruk, & Ramgroon 2006).
Ajibola and Farombi (2012) assert that workers in order to accommodate their family responsibilities and increase the time they spend with their families, have changed or gone into occupations that offer greater flexibility, passed on promotions, limited work hours , schedules and work closer to home. Folorunsho (2015) posits that social support is necessary in countering work–family conflict. He observes that in the absence of social supports from families, friends and partners, employees may be at greater risk of strain- related outcomes that arise from work family conflict. Siedlelecki, Cesnauskas and Lazauskaite (2014) posit that lack of social support is positively related to depressive and anxious symptoms both in the general population and among unemployed population.
Social support refers to an individual’s belief that help is available from other people in different situations (Cobb, 1976; Mayo, Sanchez, Pastor, Rodriguez, 2012). Utilizing this perspective, social support has been found to be a job resource that buffers the effect of stress (Cohen and Wills, 1985; Bakker, and Geurts, 2004; Mayo et al., 2012) and thus descreasing the onset of burnout. (DeFreese &Smith, 2013) found out that social support has also been shown to be inversely related to burnout in a sporting context. Defreese & Smith (2014) reported that social support is encouraged by sport psychologists in the maintenance of an athlete’s well-being. Ogunronbi and Akinlabi (2015) contend that social support promotes positive relationship between work and family affairs. For example, the interference of job demand and job related factors will not increase employees’ work-family conflict when supervisors care to provide adequate materials and moral support to workers in the work place. Malik (2011) reveals that overall gender differences can be seen as women do not have high expectations on pay, fringe benefits and nature of job.
Gender refers to the socially constructed expectation for male and female behaviour which prescribes a division of labour and responsibilities between the male and the female and granting of different rights and obligations to them (Pollard & Morgan 2001). Azikiwe (2001) describes gender as social and historical constructs for masculine and feminine roles, behaviour, attributes and ideologies, which connote some notion of biological sex. Woolfork (2010) asserts that gender usually refers to traits and behaviour that a particular culture judges to be appropriate for men and women. Gender relates to the difference in sex (that is, either male or female) and how this quality affects their dispositions and perceptions toward life coping skills (Adenuga & Ayodele, 2010). According to Sotonade (2012) gender is a concept used in social sciences to look at roles and activities which are shaped by the tradition, religion and belief of a particular culture. Previous studies on gender do not have consistent direct impact on outcome variables such as behavioural change. (Abosede, 2007; Adeyemo, 1999; Salami, 1999). The factors that influence a change in behaviour may vary across gender.
The difference in gender as it affects individual coping skills is inconclusive (Adenuga & Ayodele, 2010). This has necessitated the need to find out if there is any significant influence of gender on the combined and relative determinants of job demand, work-family conflict and social support to the prediction of job satisfaction and well-being of non- academic staff of polytechnics in South West Nigeria. According to Kovac, (2009) cadre was found to affect every area of human performance. Staff cadre is also considered as a moderating variable that may likely mediate the effect of job demand, work-family conflict and inadequate social supports on job satisfaction and well-being among non-academic staff in this study. Cognitive development and competence (which are associated with cadre) are necessary for a worthwhile higher job positions. Job cadre of the individual, as it increases or changes, usually affects the various roles performed and mental health. Therefore, it has become necessary to include gender and cadre in this study as moderating variables.
1.2 Objectives of the Study
The major objective of this study is to determine the extent to which job demand, work–family conflict and social support predict job satisfaction and well- being of non- academic staff of polytechnics in South-West Nigeria.
The specific objectives are as follows:
i. To find the extent of the combined contribution of job demand, work-family conflict, and social-support will jointly and individually predict job satisfaction and well-being of Nigerian polytechnics non- academic staff.
ii. To explore the moderating influence of gender and staff cadre on the joint and individual contributions of job demand, work-family-conflict and social support in the prediction of job satisfaction and well-being of Nigerian polytechnics non-academic staff.
iii. To establish the interrelationship among job demand, work-family conflict, social-support, job satisfaction and well-being of Nigerian polytechnics non- academic staff.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
One has probably observed that the lack of job satisfaction of some non-academic staff of Nigerian Polytechnics could result in some of them having another source of income, not punctual in their office, spending less time at work, attending poorly to the students needs. Moreover, some non-academic staff absented themselves from office without due permission from their superior. To an outside observer, these things which appear as common problems in Nigerian Polytechics are indicator of low job satisfaction and well-being among non academic staff of Polytechnics.It is clear that many non-academic staff lack job satisfaction and adequate well-being. As observable in the way they attend to student’s needs, care of students and other job responsibilities.This scenario may not be unconnected with job demand, work-family conflict and social support of these non-academic staff in the day to day running of the polytechics. One has equally observed that, job satisfaction and well-being tend to have direct influences on individuals. For instance, where a worker experiences higher job demand coupled with the work-family conflict and is deprived of social support in the running of the affairs of his or her institution, the individual may not be able satisfied with his or her job let alone experience good well-being.
Furthermore, since the non-acdemia includes male and female personnel operating at the various cadres, the possibility of gender and staff cadre variations in workers’ job satisfaction and well-being cannot be completely ruled out.Hence, the two factors are carried along in this study as moderating variables.
1.4 Research Questions.
i. What is the level of work-family conflict of non-academic staff of Nigerian polytechnics?
ii. What is the level of job demands of non-academic staff of Nigerian polytechnics?
iii. What is the level of social support of non-academic staff of Nigerian polytechnics?
iv. What is the level of job satisfaction of non-academic staff of Nigerian polytechnics?
v. What is the level of well-being of non-academic staff of Nigerian polytechnics?
vi. What is the relationship among job demand, work-family conflict, social-supports, job satisfaction and well-being of Nigerian Polytechnic non- academic staff?
vii. Would there be any significant differences in the job demand of Nigerian Polytechnics non-academic staff?
viii. Would there be any significant differences in the work-family conflict of Nigerian Polytechnic non-academic staff?
ix. Would there be any significant differences in the social support of Nigerian Polytechnics non-academic staff?
x. Would there be any significant differences in the job satisfaction of Nigerian Polytechnics non-academic staff?
xi. Would there be any significant differences in the well-being Nigerian Polytechnics non- academic staff?
1.5. Statement of Hypotheses
Ho1: Job demand, work-family conflict and social-support will not significantly correlate w ith job satisfaction among Nigerian polytechnics non -academic staff.
Ho2: There is no significant composite contribution of job demand, work-family conflict and social support to the prediction of job satisfaction among non- academic staff of Nigerian polytechnics.
Ho3: There is no significant relative contribution of job demand, work-family conflict and social support to the prediction of job satisfaction of Nigerian polytechnics’ non-academic staff.
Ho4: There is no significant gender difference in the composite contribution of job demand, work-family conflict and social support to the prediction of job satisfaction of Nigerian polytechnics’ non- academic staff.
Ho5: There is no significant gender difference in the relative contribution of work-family conflict and well-being to the prediction of job satisfaction of Nigerian polytechnics’ non- academic staff.
Ho6: There is no significant cadre difference in the composite contribution of job demand, work-family conflict, and social support to the prediction of job satisfaction of Nigerian polytechnics’ non- academic staff.
Ho7: There is no significant cadre difference in the relative contributions of job demand work-family conflict and social support to the prediction of job satisfaction of Nigerian polytechnics’ non – academic staff.
Ho8: There is no significant composite contribution of job demand, work-family conflict and social support to the prediction of well- being of Nigerian polytechnics’ non- academic staff.
Ho9: There is no significant relative contribution of job demand, work-family conflict, and social support to the prediction of well-being of Nigerian polytechnics’ non- academic staff.
Ho10: There is no significant gender difference in the composite contribution of job demand, work-family conflict and social-support to the prediction of well-being of Nigerian polytechnics’ non- academic staff.
Ho 11: There is no significant gender difference in the relative contribution of job demand, work-family conflict and social- support to the prediction of well-being of Nigerian polytechnics’ non- academic staff.
Ho12: There is no significant cadre difference in the composite contribution of job demand, work-family conflict and social support to the prediction of well-being of Nigerian polytechnics’ non- academic staff.
Ho13: There is no significant cadre difference in the relative contribution of job demand, work-family conflict and social supports to the prediction of well-being of Nigerian polytechnics’ non- academic staff.
1.6. Significance of the Study
· The findings of this study would expand the frontier of knowledge on the theme of the study, although, there are existing literature on some of the variables being explored in this work but findings on their inter-relatedness especially among non-academic staff are far from being conclusive.
· It is hoped that the study will provide vital information and empirical data which are necessary to further facilitate an understanding of the major variables of the study.
· This study has a great prospect of facilitating efforts of stakeholders such as the Non-academic staff, Polytechnics Administrators, Management and Government towards formulating policies that will enhance polytechnics staff job satisfaction and well-being.
· To the Non-academic staff, the study will afford them the opportunity to self–examine the extent to which job satisfaction can ensure well-being bearing in mind his or her job demand, work-family conflict and social support in performing its duties.
· To the Polytechnic Administrators, the study will be beneficial to the Polytechnic Administrators to know the extent to which the non-academic staff job satisfaction could enhance well-being to bring out the best performance in the Polytechnic job assigned to the non-academic staff. Also, to ensure smooth running of the Polytechnic system.
· To the Government, especially in Nigeria it is always difficult to provide acceptable salaries and wages for Polytechnics staff especially the members of non-academic staff. Hence, a careful consideration and implementation of the findings and recommendations of this study will help to achieve industrial harmony that can promote conducive learning and working environment.
· It will also assist the government in the manpower and National development. Also, focusing attention on the outcomes of this study by government and other stakeholders in Polytechnics community will help to stimulate personnel training services that can further enhance non academic staff job satisfaction and well- being in public and private Polytechnics.
· To parents and guidances the results of the study will provide information, especially to parents and guardians, on how to manage their job demand, work-family conflict and social support with a view in enhancing their job satisfaction and well-being.
· To personnel psychology, the study will be of immense benefit to scholars in the field of personnel psychology.
· The findings will also serve as a data base for other researchers and investigators through publication in both local and international journals.
1.7. Scope of the Study
The research work has investigated job demand, work- family conflict and social support to the prediction of job satisfaction and well-being of non- academic staff in public and private polytechnic in the South-West, Nigeria. The study area covers six states including Lagos, Oyo, Osun, Ondo, Ogun and Ekiti. The study also explores the moderating influence of gender and staff cadre on the independent and dependent variables.
1.8. Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms were defined as used in this study.
(a) Job demand: This is the excessive work load and pressure experienced by workers in the cause of performing their duties.
(b) Work-family Conflict: This is a situation where work roles affect family roles or family roles affect work roles.
(c) Designation: This is the post an individual occupies in a place of work
(d) Non-Academic staff: Categories of workers who perform administrative work in an institution.
(e) Social support: This is the support received from people around us.
(f) Job Satisfaction: This refers to individual feelings and reactions about his or her job.
(g) Well- being: This is the feelings and experience of individual about his or her life.
(h) Management cadre: Categories of non- academic staff working in Polytechnics which were on salary scale from contedis 14 and above
(i) Senior cadre: Categories of non-academic staff working in Polytechnics which were on salary scale from contedis 8 to 13.
(j) Junior cadre: Categories of non-academic staff working in Polytechnics which were on salary scale from contedis 3 to 7
A comprehensive and exhaustive review of literature is indispensible in the provision of sufficient theoretical and empirical background to any study. Consequently, chapter presents the review of the vast volume of literature materials that are of importance and relevance to this study under the following sub headings.
2.1 Theoretical framework.
2.2 Theoretical Literature Review
2.3 Empirical Findings
2.4 Conceptual Framework of the Study
2.5 Appraisal of Literature
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.1.1 Role Conflict Theory
2.2 Conceptual Theoretical Review
2.2.1 Concept of Job Satisfaction
2.2.2 Concept of Well–being
2.2.3 Concept of Job Demand
2.2.4 Concept of Work–family Conflict
2.2.5 Concept of Social Support.
2.3. Empirical Review
2.3.1 Job Demand, Job Satisfaction and Well-being
2.3.2 Work – family Conflict, Job Satisfaction and Well-being
2.3.3 Social Support, Job Satisfaction and Well-being
2.3.4 Gender, Staff Cadre, Job Satisfaction and Well-being
2.4. Appraisal of Literature
2.5. Conceptual Model
2.1.1 Role theory
Role theory was postulated by Ralph Linton, an American Anthropologist, in the 1930s (Gordon, 1998). The theory was a means for analyzing social system, in which, roles were conceived as the dynamic aspets of societal recognized social positions or status. It is believed that individuals generally have many roles which they are expected to perform. Role theory suggests that within social settings, various social structures are formed (e.g., families, communities, work) that require various roles that individuals fulfill (Parsons & Shils, 1951). With each social role, there are certain duties, rights, norms, and behaviours expected (Biddle, 1986). Involvement in multiple roles (e.g., spouse, mother, father, manager, and worker) can lead to what is sometimes referred to as role conflict, role strain (Barnett & Baruch, 1985; Kopelman, Greenhaus, Connolly, & Thomas, 1983), or role overload (Baruch & Barnett, 1986). Role conflict occurs when a person is unable to fulfill the responsibilities within each of their roles. This perceived “conflict” can be a result of external constraints prohibiting an individual from fulfilling his multiple role responsibilities (Barnett & Baruch, 1985; Coverman, 1989; Kopelman et al., 1983).
Role strain has been defined by Goode (1960) as “felt difficulty in performing role obligations.” Role overload is often experienced as a result of having too little time to fulfill various role demands (Barnett & Baruch, 1985). Work-role conflict theory by Kahn, Wolfe, Ouinn, Snoek & Rosenthel (1964) suggests that as a result of multiple role (work and non-work) responsibilities, a conflict (work-family conflict) may be experienced when a worker is unable to fulfill various role obligations. These conflicts may be experienced either because the time available to fulfill one role obligation makes it difficult to fulfill other role obligations or because engagement in one role depletes energy and makes it difficult to meet other role obligations. In other words, limited resources in terms of time and energy to meet various role obligations, result in the experiences of time-based or strain-based work-family conflict. Some researchers posit that engaging in multiple roles may leave insufficient time to fulfill the various demands and responsibilities inherent to an individual’s roles, resulting in a depletion of time and energy (Coverman, 1989).
Role conflict and role overload have been shown to have negative effects on psychological well-being, job satisfaction, and marital satisfaction (Coverman, 1989). Competing demands may require additional time, energy, and resources, and thus can result in the experiences of strain and conflict, if the individual does not have enough resources to meet multiple demands (Goode, 1960). Using role theory, Goode (1960) developed the scarcity hypothesis to understand the conflict. The scarcity hypothesis states that people have limited time, energy, and resources. Involvement in multiple roles means responding to multiple role obligations. As such, accomplishing various role responsibilities requires time, energy, and various types of resources. The scarcity hypothesis posits that when the demands from these multiple roles exceed the supply of time, energy, and other resources that help to meet with various role responsibilities, strain may be experienced in form of role conflict or role overload (Coverman, 1989; Goode, 1960). The scarcity hypothesis was the basis for early studies of work-role and work-family conflict.
Greenhouse’s conceptualization of time-based conflict and strain-based conflict was used in this study because it helps to better understand the effects of job demands on non -academic staff experiencing work-family conflict. When workers are required to work for long hours at demanding jobs, they may be more likely to experience time-based and strain-based work-family conflict due to the challenges they would face in multiple role responsibilities. The role conflict theory which is the framework on which the study is anchored on explains that human beings only have a fixed amount of energy to be used for multiple roles. Role conflict results when an individual encounters tensions as a result of incompatible roles. It can also be seen as a form of social conflict which takes place when an individual is forced to do two different and incompatible roles at the same time. Previous studies on work-role conflict done by Kahn, Wolfe, Ouinn, Snoek & Rosenthel (1964) was rooted in role theory.
They found out that conflict arises as a result of various roles that an individual may assume: “Simultaneous occurrence of two (or more) sets of pressures such that compliance with one would make more difficult compliance with the other,” thus making it difficult for an individual to fulfill the responsibilities within one domain as a result of demands in another domain.The application of role conflict theory to this study, therefore suggest that there is strong indication that non-academic staff in Nigerian polytechnics may experinces conflicts in balancing their work and family responsibilities.For example, non-academic staff may find conflict between picking up his or her son from school as a result of extended academic board meeting which demand extra hours and attention. Resting on this theory also, it can be assumed that female married non- academic staff would experience role conflict in the process of occupying various status.For instance, role conlict would occur while trying to be a mother, wife in the family and no-academic staff at work.
For non-academic staff, literature suggests that they are likely to work long hours (Ajao, 2014). Peters (2010) observes that time-based and strain-based work to family conflict often affect the performance of workers in an organisation Thus, it is important to understand the experience of both of these types of work-family conflict among non-academic staff in order to prevent losses on the part of the organizations, workers and the country at large. Expanding on this idea of inter-role conflict and applying it to work-family domains, Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) define inter-role conflict as a form of role conflict in which participation in different roles leads to opposing pressures, and “role pressures from the work and family domains are mutually incompatible in some respect.
Based on work-role conflict theory, Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) identify the three specific types of work-family conflict previously discussed: time-based, strain based, and behaviour-based conflicts. Time-based conflict refers to the conflict that arises when time assigned to fulfill one role responsibility makes it hard to fulfill another role responsibility (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985). For example, occurrence of an important work meeting at the same time as one’s child’s soccer match may stress the individual as he/she has to prioritize one event over the other. The individual is not able to fulfill both of the roles at the same time. Strain-based conflict refers to the stress experienced when the fulfillment of one role leads to a difficulty in the fulfillment of a role in another domain (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985). An example of strain-based conflict is a working mother who finds it difficult to attend to the needs of her children because she is exhausted from her physically demanding job (Grzywacz et al., 2007). The third type of conflict, behaviour based conflict, refers to situations when an individual is expected to carry out diverse behaviours in different domains, and specific behaviour requirements in one domain may make it difficult to fulfill the role requirement in another domain (Greenhaus & Beutell 1985).
This experience is likely to cause conflict as the individual is unable to conform to the expected roles to be played in different domains. For example, a person may be expected to behave with impersonality, logic, and authority at work. At home, these very same behaviours may not be appreciated by family member.
2.2.0 Conceptual and Theorectical Review
2.2.1 Concept of Job Satisfaction
Spector, (1997) defines, job satisfaction as a measure of workers contendeness with their job, whetheror not they like the job or individual aspect or facets of jobs, such as supervision. Locke, (1976) defines job satisfaction as “pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences.” Job satisfaction can be seen within the broader context of the range of isues which affect an individual’s experience of work or their quality of working life (Illies & Judge 2003). Job satisfaction can be undersood in terms of its relationship with key factors, such as control at work, general well-being, stress at work, home-work interface and working conditions (Thompson & Phuma, 2012). Siang (2015) describes job satisfaction as the feelings regarding one’s job and how happy such a person feels within that job. This can be affected by many factors such as company policies and interpersonal relationships. Job satisfaction, as an organisational factor, is interconnected with various internal and external motivators (Ajobi, 2015). In the same vein, Olorunsola (2012) clarifies that job satisfaction is a compound of internal and external factors that employees consider. These factors refer to employees’ welfare in their private and social life. Job satisfaction, as an organisational factor, has different levels (high and low levels) that are determined by various motivators. Each of these levels illuminates the amount of employees’ feeling towards their job. It also, shows their reaction at workplace. In other words, high level of job satisfaction would lead to high level of productivity. In contrast, low level of job satisfaction leads to low turnover and absenteeism amongst employees (Wan, Ahmad, & Abdurrahman, 2015). Robin and Judge (2013) define job satisfaction as positive feelings about a job resulting from evaluation of its characteristics. A person with high level of job satisfaction holds positive feeling about his or her job, while a person with low level holds negative feelings.
Job satisfaction is the collection of feeling and beliefs that worker have about their current job. Worker’s levels of degrees of job satisfaction can range from extreme satisfaction to extreme dissatisfaction. Workers also can have attitude about various aspects of their jobs such as the kind of work they do, their coworkers, supervisors or subordinates and their salary (George & Jones, 2008). Job satisfaction is a yardstick for quality work experience. It is a positive emotional feeling, a result of one’s evaluation of his job experience by comparing what he expects from his/her job and what he actually gets. Generally, job satisfaction describes how happy employees are with their jobs and the feelings that they have towards the various aspects of their jobs. Job satisfaction has become a very significant feature in every organisation because of its importance to the behaviour of employees in the work place. Therefore, human resources managers tend to seek for total reward programme that could enhance employees’ job satisfaction and in turn increase organisational performance and productivity (Galanou, Georgakopoulos, Sotiropoulos & Dimitris, 2010; Mujtaba & Shuaib, 2010).
The most widely accepted theory of job satisfaction was proposed by Locke (1976) He defines job satisfaction as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences” (Locke, 1975). Job satisfaction is a very important part of an organisational job attitude which represents attitude and feelings about various aspects of their jobs such as their coworkers, supervisors or subordinates, work load and the salary of workers in an organisation. In an organisation many, people are working for the sake of money and profit.
Nguyen & Nguyen, (2011) affirm that an employee is a vital asset for an organisation. To them“employees own knowledge, skills and capabilities and companies do not own them”. Job satisfaction has emotional, cognitive, and behavioural components (Bernstein & Nash, 2008). The emotional component refers to job-related feelings such as boredom, anxiety, acknowledgement and excitement. The cognitive component of job satisfaction pertains to beliefs regarding one’s job whether it is respectable, mentally demanding or challenging and rewarding. Finally, the behavioural component includes people’s actions in relation to their work such as tardiness, working late, faking illness in order to avoid work. Bernstein & Nash, 2008). Job satisfaction refers to the positive attitudes or emotional dispositions people may gain from work or through aspects of work. Employees’ job satisfaction becomes a central attention in researches and discussions in work and organisational psychology because it is believed to have relationship with job performance.
There are essentially two types of job satisfaction based on the level of employees’ feelings regarding their jobs. The first, and most analyzed, is global job satisfaction, which refers to employees’ overall feelings about their jobs (e.g., “Overall, I love my job.”) (Mueller & Kim, 2008). The second is job facet satisfaction, which refers to feelings regarding specific job aspects, such as salary, benefits, work hierarchy (reporting structure), growth opportunities, work environment and the quality of relationships with one’s co-workers (e.g., “Overall, I love my job, but my schedule is difficult to manage.” (Mueller & Kim 2008). Judge & Klinger (2008) assert that job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from appraisal of one’s job or job experiences. Chughati & Perveen (2013) define job satisfaction as one’s feeling or state of mind related with the work while Sypniewska (2013) confirms that it is an employee’s positive attitude towards the company, co-worker and finally, the job. Clearly, job satisfaction is an important aspect in the lives of employees and enhancing it can bring benefit for the organization as well. For instance, job satisfactions can moderately increase job performance. Moreover (Luthans, 2011) asserts that increasing job satisfaction of the employees can reduce occupational stress.
Thus, employers should rather be interested in how they can improve job satisfaction among their employees. For instance, having fair salaries and wages, benefits, and offering promotion opportunities have proved to be important factors enhancing job satisfaction (Luthans, 2011). Stride, Wall and Catley (2007) affirm that job satisfaction is an intuitive concept that consists of employee’s experience of emotional reactions. The evaluation of employees’ level of job satisfaction is of utmost importance both for individuals and for institutions. If an employee is not satisfied with his or her job, he or she experiences a decline in job satisfaction. Therefore, he or she decreases the efficiency of the institution due to low contribution along with the problems in his or her personal life. Aziri (2011) opines that when employees are adequately rewarded with what they feel is equitable they will be satisfied and it will likely result in greater performance. Olorunsola (2012) confirms that job satisfaction is a combination of internal and external factors that staff contact when doing their work and which change their attitudes and feelings toward their jobs.