Test Bank For Earth Science 14th Edition By Tarbuck And Lutgens Test Bank

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Earth Science 14th Edition By Tarbuck And Lutgens –Test Bank
Earth Science, 14e (Tarbuck/Lutgens)

Chapter 1   Introduction to Earth Science

1) What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?

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  1. A) Physical geology is the study of fossils and sequences of rock strata; historical geology is the study of how rocks and minerals were used in the past.
  2. B) Historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing the geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface.
  3. C) Physical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and deposition in relation to plate movements in the geologic past; historical geology charts how and where the plates were moving in the past.
  4. D) none of the above—physical geology and historical geology are essentially the same.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

2) The study of Earth’s atmosphere is known as ________.

  1. A) astronomy
  2. B) oceanography
  3. C) meteorology
  4. D) cosmology

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

3) Which science is not used within the Earth sciences?

  1. A) Chemistry
  2. B) Physics
  3. C) Biology
  4. D) Mathematics
  5. E) None of the above; Earth Science makes use of all of these sciences.

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

4) Oceanography is the study of the oceans and geology is the study of the earth, so what is meteorology?

  1. A) the study of meteors
  2. B) the study of the Sun’s impact on the upper atmosphere
  3. C) the study of the atmosphere
  4. D) the study of how to be a TV newscaster

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

5) Sedimentary rocks with marine fossils are exposed at the top of Mt. Everest.  Which scientists would make most use of this observation in their study?

  1. A) Meteorologists, because they could use the fossils as a guide to ancient climates
  2. B) Geologists, because their elevation is related to physical geology and fossils are related to Earth history
  3. C) Oceanographers, because the fossils can tell us about periods when the earth was covered with water to the height of Mt. Everest
  4. D) Astronomers, because they can study how life came from outer space to Earth

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

6) Hurricanes and tornados are natural disasters.  What branch of the Earth sciences studies the origin of these phenomena?

  1. A) Meteorology
  2. B) Geology
  3. C) Oceanography
  4. D) Astronomy

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

7) Hurricanes are natural disasters.  Which branch of the Earth sciences studies the impact of this phenomenon on coastal environments?

  1. A) Meteorology
  2. B) Geology
  3. C) Oceanography
  4. D) Astronomy

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

8) Tsunamis and earthquakes have killed millions of people during human history.  What branch of the Earth sciences is the main group that studies these phenomena?

  1. A) Meteorology
  2. B) Geology
  3. C) Oceanography
  4. D) Astronomy

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

9) If you want to buy a house in an area and you are worried there may be an earthquake hazard, who would be the best person to ask for advice on this hazard?

  1. A) a civil engineer
  2. B) a geologist
  3. C) a physicist
  4. D) an astrologer

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

10) The earth is estimated to be approximately 4.6 billion years old.  Life appeared early in the history of Earth, but metazoans (multicelled organisms) did not appear until about 600 million years ago.  If the history of Earth were compressed into a single year, when would metazoans appear?

  1. A) late September
  2. B) late November
  3. C) mid-December
  4. D) late January

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

11) Which of the following would not typically be considered an Earth Science study?

  1. A) studies of volcanic eruptions
  2. B) studies of impact craters on the moon
  3. C) studies of acid mine waters and the bacteria that live in those waters
  4. D) chemical refining of petroleum

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension; Application/Analysis

12) Climate change is a well-known human problem and remains controversial despite widespread scientific agreement on the issue.  Although most scientists are familiar with the issues, if you were a congressman and wanted an informed analysis of the problem, which of the following would be most likely to give you the most complete analysis?

  1. A) an astronomer
  2. B) a meteorologist with knowledge of oceanography
  3. C) a geologist with knowledge of astronomy
  4. D) a physicist

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

13) A ________ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.

  1. A) hypothesis
  2. B) generalization
  3. C) law
  4. D) theory

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

14) The primary goal of Earth Science is ________.

  1. A) to develop things that will benefit mankind
  2. B) to identify the patterns in nature and use that information to predict the future
  3. C) to locate resources
  4. D) to protect the environment

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

15) All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except for ________.

  1. A) the collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement
  2. B) assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation
  3. C) the development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts
  4. D) development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

16) Which of the following is not necessary for a hypothesis to be accepted by the scientific community?

  1. A) It must be testable.
  2. B) It must predict something other than the observations it was based on.
  3. C) There must be alternative hypotheses proposed.
  4. D) It must be based on observations or facts.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

17) The ________ explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles.

  1. A) protogalactic theory
  2. B) nebular theory
  3. C) extrastellar solar hypothesis
  4. D) planetary compression theory

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

18) Which of the following is not a planet?

  1. A) Europa
  2. B) Venus
  3. C) Saturn
  4. D) Neptune

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

19) In the television series “Cosmos” the astronomer Carl Sagan used to say, “We are all made of star stuff.”  What did he mean by that?

  1. A) All of the chemical elements were formed during the big bang when the universe began, so we are like the stars.
  2. B) We all have to potential to be stars.
  3. C) All of the chemical elements in our solar system were forged in an ancient star that went supernova.
  4. D) The earth has incorporated large amounts of chemical material from the solar wind, so our bodies carry this material.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

20) In the proto-solar system nebula, gravity pulled matter together to form larger bodies. As they collided, what happened to these bodies?

  1. A) Oblique collisions caused individual bodies to spin.
  2. B) The objects broke apart to form asteroids, much like a neutron colliding with a heavy atom produces fission.
  3. C) The objects temporarily broke apart and then reformed into large objects, cooling rapidly during the breakup period.
  4. D) Immense heat was released within the colliding bodies as gravitational potential energy was converted to heat.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

21) Light elements like hydrogen and helium form a large percentage of the outer planets and Sun is made up primarily of hydrogen.  Why are these elements nearly absent from the inner planets?

  1. A) The Sun captured all of the hydrogen during its formation.
  2. B) These light elements are blown away from the inner planets by the solar wind.
  3. C) It is a mystery that has never been solved by science.
  4. D) Hydrogen and helium have all been bound up by chemical reactions on the inner planets and are held in rock.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

22) Comets are made up primarily of ________.

  1. A) iron-nickel alloys
  2. B) silicate minerals, like rocks on Earth
  3. C) frozen hydrogen
  4. D) frozen water, carbon dioxide, and methane

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

23) The Oort cloud is ________.

  1. A) an unusual type of cloud formed when meteorites strike the earth
  2. B) another name for the inner solar system, just before the Sun became hot enough for nuclear fusion
  3. C) the outer solar system where planetesimals, rocky debris and comets orbit outside beyond the outer planets but cross into the inner solar system at times
  4. D) the asteroid belt

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

24) The ________ refers to the sum total of all life on Earth.

  1. A) hydrosphere
  2. B) atmosphere
  3. C) biosphere
  4. D) geosphere

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

25) The ________ refers to the water-dominated parts of the earth.

  1. A) hydrosphere
  2. B) atmosphere
  3. C) biosphere
  4. D) geosphere

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

26) The largest of Earth’s spheres is the ________.

  1. A) hydrosphere
  2. B) atmosphere
  3. C) geosphere
  4. D) biosphere

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

27) Soil belongs to the ________.

  1. A) hydrosphere
  2. B) atmosphere
  3. C) geosphere
  4. D) biosphere
  5. E) All of the above

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

28) The exchange of energy between the surface of the earth, the atmosphere, and space causes ________.

  1. A) topography
  2. B) temperature
  3. C) weather
  4. D) glaciers

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

29) In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?

  1. A) core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crust
  2. B) inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
  3. C) inner core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere
  4. D) core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

30) The composition of the earth’s inner core is thought to be ________.

  1. A) basalt
  2. B) granite
  3. C) peridotite
  4. D) solid iron-nickel alloy

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

31) The asthenosphere is actually a part of the ________ of the earth.

  1. A) outer core
  2. B) crust
  3. C) inner core
  4. D) mantle

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

32) The ________ is thought to be a liquid, metallic region in the earth’s interior.

  1. A) inner core
  2. B) lithosphere
  3. C) mantle
  4. D) outer core

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

33) The ________ is the thinnest layer of the earth.

  1. A) crust
  2. B) outer core
  3. C) mantle
  4. D) inner core

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

34) The ________ forms the relatively cool, brittle tectonic plates.

  1. A) asthenosphere
  2. B) lithosphere
  3. C) astrosphere
  4. D) eosphere

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

35) Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth’s lithospheric plates?

  1. A) gravitational attractive forces of the Sun and Moon
  2. B) electrical and magnetic fields localized in the inner core
  3. C) heat transfer between the earth’s interior and the surface of the earth
  4. D) swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

36) Convergent plate boundaries are ________.

  1. A) sites where cold, downgoing convective cells, the plates, descent into the mantle
  2. B) sites where heat from the earth’s interior is vented to the surface as volcanos
  3. C) areas where two plates slide laterally past one another, generating earthquakes, like the San Andrea fault
  4. D) sites of supervolcanos like Yellowstone

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

37) Oceanic crust is generated at ________.

  1. A) hot spots on the sea floor, like Iceland
  2. B) spreading ridges
  3. C) convergent plate margins
  4. D) transform plate margins

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

38) Continental shields and platforms represent ________.

  1. A) sites where continents collide, analogous to warriors clashing shields
  2. B) names given to Paleozoic mountain belts
  3. C) sedimentary basins with inland seas shaped like a shield, like Hudson’s bay
  4. D) areas in the interior of continents that have not experienced mountain building for billions of years

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere; Fig. 1.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

39) Which of the following layers in the earth has the highest density?

  1. A) Lithosphere
  2. B) Asthenosphere
  3. C) Lower mantle
  4. D) Outer Core

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

40) The Andes Mountains in South America are formed by ________.

  1. A) subduction
  2. B) sea floor spreading
  3. C) back-arc contraction
  4. D) continental collision

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

41) The Himalayan Mountains and adjacent Tibet are a mountain system formed by ________.

  1. A) subduction
  2. B) sea floor spreading
  3. C) back-arc contraction
  4. D) continental collision

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

42) Which of the following is a reasonable approximation of the rate that plates move?

  1. A) the rate of growth of human hair or fingernails
  2. B) the speed a turtle walks
  3. C) the speed of a mountain glacier
  4. D) the speed of deep ocean currents

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

43) What two chemical elements are most abundant in the deep interior of the earth?

  1. A) iron and magnesium
  2. B) magnesium and oxygen
  3. C) hydrogen and helium
  4. D) silicon and oxygen

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

44) A major cause of the differences in elevation between ocean basins and continents is ________.

  1. A) viscosity
  2. B) temperature
  3. C) density
  4. D) mass

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

45) Ocean floor averages about ________ km depth below sea level.

  1. A) 2
  2. B) 4
  3. C) 6
  4. D) 8

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

46) Ocean crust is denser than continental crust because ocean crust is ________.

  1. A) composed primarily of basalt
  2. B) composed primarily of granite
  3. C) thicker than continental crust
  4. D) thinner than continental crust

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

47) Flat, stable areas of continental crust tend to be located ________.

  1. A) along coastlines
  2. B) near desert regions
  3. C) in the interior of continents
  4. D) in areas that receive large amounts of rainfall

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

48) Major mountain belts on the earth are ________.

  1. A) older than smaller mountain belts because they have had enough time to grow large
  2. B) located around the Pacific Ocean
  3. C) over 10 km high
  4. D) made of granite because it is low density and allows for maximum growth

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

49) Shield areas in continental interiors are characterized by ________.

  1. A) linear chains of mountains less than 100 million years old
  2. B) flat areas that include rocks older than 1 billion years old
  3. C) flat river valleys that cut through older mountain ranges
  4. D) ancient coastal regions that have become abandoned and eroded

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

50) Which of the following is not considered to be part of a typical ocean basin?

  1. A) a linear chain of volcanoes
  2. B) large expanses of flat plains
  3. C) granitic intrusions
  4. D) deep canyons

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

51) Deep ocean trenches typically are not located adjacent to ________.

  1. A) transform plate boundaries
  2. B) volcanic island arc chains
  3. C) young continental mountains
  4. D) abyssal plains

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

52) Long oceanic mountain chains typically are characterized by ________.

  1. A) highly deformed sedimentary rocks
  2. B) granitic plutons and batholiths
  3. C) layers of igneous rocks
  4. D) rocks older than 1 billion years old

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

53) Active mountain belts are most likely to be found ________.

  1. A) along the margins of continents
  2. B) in the interior regions of continents
  3. C) scattered throughout continents
  4. D) along only the eastern margins of continents

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

54) The continental shelf is located ________.

  1. A) between the continental slope and continental rise
  2. B) between the continental rise and the abyssal plains
  3. C) seaward of the continental slope
  4. D) landward of the continental slope

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

55) The most prominent features on the ocean floor are the ________.

  1. A) deep-ocean trenches
  2. B) oceanic ridges
  3. C) seamounts
  4. D) lava plateaus

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

56) A(n) ________ system is one in which energy moves freely in and out, but no matter enters or leaves the system.

  1. A) closed
  2. B) open
  3. C) feedback
  4. D) equilibrated

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

57) Mechanisms that enhance or drive change are known as ________.

  1. A) negative feedback mechanisms
  2. B) positive feedback mechanisms
  3. C) closed feedback mechanisms
  4. D) open feedback mechanisms

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

58) What is the source of the energy that powers the Earth system?

  1. A) the Sun
  2. B) heat from Earth’s interior
  3. C) both A and B
  4. D) none of the above

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

59) Which of the following is not a system?

  1. A) the biosphere
  2. B) soil, plants, rock, soil organisms, and animals
  3. C) the study of minerals
  4. D) the Pacific Ocean and the west coast of North America

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

60) A mineralogist studies minerals and their origins. A mineralogist studying the Earth system would ________.

  1. A) do the same thing, studying minerals and their origins, as any other mineralogist
  2. B) study how minerals form rocks
  3. C) study how minerals influence organisms living on them, how they react with water to produce soil forming minerals, or study how wind transports minerals as dust and influences climate
  4. D) Minerals can never be used to study the Earth system.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

61) hypothesis       theory           fact               observation

Answer:  fact

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

62) protosun       Oort cloud          planetesimals         meteorites

Answer:  Oort cloud

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

63) hydrosphere       biosphere         atmosphere         solid earth

Answer:  biosphere

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

64) crust            mantle            lithosphere             core

Answer:  lithosphere

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

65) mountain belt         shield         continental interior         stable platform

Answer:  mountain belt

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

66) abyssal plain        seamount         oceanic ridge         continental crust

Answer:  continental crust

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

67) The vast majority of Earth scientists are involved in either extraction of mineral resources or energy.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

68) Earth Science is the only science that doesn’t use mathematics beyond simple arithmetic.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

69) Environmental science always involves a large component of Earth Science.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

70) Science is based on the assumption that nature behaves in a consistent and predictable manner.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

71) Scientists only use measurements that are known to be reliable and accurate.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

72) A scientific theory is a tentative or untested explanation that is proposed to explain scientific observations.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

73) A scientific theory is the first step in developing an idea.  It is not very well tested.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

74) Not all scientific hypotheses require real world observations. Some are tested through computer modeling or some other non-direct observations.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

75) The “Big Bang” is an example of theory.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 and 1.3: Nature of Scientific Inquiry and Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

76) The formation of the solar system from a huge cloud of gases and dispersed particles is known as the solar galactic hypothesis.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

77) According to the nebular theory, all of the bodies in the universe evolved from a rotating cloud of gases and dust about five billion years ago.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

78) There are places on the deepest parts of the ocean where no light penetrates that support colonies of life.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

79) Oceans cover slightly less than half of the earth’s surface.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

80) The lithosphere and asthenosphere are layers of Earth defined by their composition.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

81) We can tell a lot about the internal processes in the earth by looking at the exterior of the earth.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

82) The earth is sometimes called “The Blue Planet” because the atmosphere appears blue in sunlight.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

83) Internally, the earth consists of spherical shells with different compositions and densities.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

84) The asthenosphere is the liquid layer in the upper mantle that the plates move on.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

85) Lithospheric plates are the tops of convection cells and subduction zones are the downgoing part of the convection cell.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

86) The earth’s core is entirely molten iron and convection of this molten mass generates the earth’s magnetic field.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

87) Subduction zones are downgoing convection cells in the earth but only carry oceanic material into the mantle.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

88) During the history of the earth there have been periods when all the continents were together in a supercontinent.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

89) Internally, the earth consists of spherical shells with different compositions and densities.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

90) The asthenosphere is a relatively cool and rigid shell that overlies the lithosphere.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

91) Continents are, on average, about 2 km higher than sea level.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

92) The waterline where the ocean meets the land is the boundary between oceanic crust and continental crust.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

93) Shields and stable platforms are typically found in the interior regions of a continent.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

94) Humans are not a part of the Earth System.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

95) In an open system both energy and matter flow into and out of the system.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

96) List the two broad, traditional subject areas of geologic study.

Answer:  physical geology and historical geology

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

97) When a hypothesis has survived extensive scrutiny and when competing ones have been eliminated, a hypothesis may be elevated to the status of a(n) ________.

Answer:  scientific theory

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

98) The thin, outer layer of Earth, from 7 to 40 km in thickness, is called the ________.

Answer:  crust

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

99) The ________ is the relatively rigid zone above the asthenosphere that includes the crust and upper mantle.

Answer:  lithosphere

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

100) The ________ is the solid, rocky shell between the crust and outer core.

Answer:  mantle

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

101) The convective flow of liquid, metallic iron in the ________ is thought to generate Earth’s magnetic field.

Answer:  outer core

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

102) Moving from the shoreline towards the deep-ocean basin, the continental margin includes the ________.

Answer:  continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

103) The ________ is the most prominent feature on the ocean floor.

Answer:  oceanic or mid-ocean ridge

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

104) In natural systems, mechanisms that drive or enhance change are called ________.

Answer:  positive feedback mechanisms

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Critical Thinking and Discussion.  Use complete sentences, correct spelling, and the information presented in Chapter 1 to answer the questions below.

105) Earth’s physical environment is traditionally divided in the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and the solid Earth.  Remembering the scientific method, why do you think that scientists tend to categorize and classify various features, phenomena, and characteristics of the natural world into groups or subdivisions?  Also, are there potential pitfalls or problems if we only consider the natural world as individual groups or categories rather than as a whole?

Answer:  Categorizing and classifying is a way of cataloging the differences and similarities between things.  We put items that are mostly similar into the same broad groups and separate items that are mostly different.  From this system, we can begin to study why things are similar and what is the significance of the differences and that helps us to get to the basic processes that are of scientific interest.  The pitfalls or problems are that we may not recognize similarities in objects that have been classified as different and vice versa.  Also, we are likely to miss the interactions between different groups and the processes that cause those interactions when we focus on classifying things.

Diff: 3

Topic:  1.4 Earth’s Spheres

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis; Synthesis/Evaluation

106) What is the relationship of the dense oceanic crust that is produced at a divergent plate boundary to the convergence or collision of an oceanic plate and a continental plate, such as the western margin of South America in the diagram below?

Answer:  The dense oceanic crust sinks underneath the more buoyant continental crust at this type of convergent plate boundary.

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Earth Science, 14e (Tarbuck/Lutgens)

Chapter 3   Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth

1) Why does magma rise toward the Earth’s surface?

  1. A) because it is hot
  2. B) because it is a liquid
  3. C) because it is less dense than the material around it
  4. D) because it is immiscible and cannot combine with the material around it

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

2) What is required for an igneous rock to weather?

  1. A) It must move downslope under the influence of gravity.
  2. B) It must be exposed at the surface of the Earth.
  3. C) It must be uplifted from where it was emplaced.
  4. D) It must be deposited by water or ice.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

3) What is the most common place for sediment to be deposited?

  1. A) rivers
  2. B) beaches
  3. C) mountains
  4. D) oceans

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

4) What is the difference between “magma” and “lava”?

  1. A) Magma is formed deep in the Earth and lava forms near the surface of the Earth.
  2. B) It is just a name change, and lava is what magma is called if it reaches the surface of the Earth.
  3. C) Magma makes igneous rocks and lava forms volcanoes.
  4. D) Magma is less dense than lava.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

5) Which of the following places is well known for its intrusive igneous rocks that were exposed by erosion?

  1. A) Mount St. Helens Volcano
  2. B) Hawaii
  3. C) Yosemite National Park
  4. D) Yellowstone National Park

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

6) Why do crystals in a magma stop growing during cooling?

  1. A) They run out of space.
  2. B) They run out of heat.
  3. C) They become too dense to grow.
  4. D) The pressure from rocks above becomes too great and the magma stops growing crystals.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

7) If magma or lava cools quickly, the resulting igneous rock will have ________.

  1. A) more silicate minerals
  2. B) more variations in mineral types
  3. C) very small crystals
  4. D) very large crystals

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

8) Which of the following is not a dark silicate mineral?

  1. A) biotite
  2. B) amphibole
  3. C) quartz
  4. D) pyroxene

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

9) Igneous rocks with an andesitic composition ________.

  1. A) are denser than basaltic compositional rocks
  2. B) make up most of the sea floor
  3. C) are denser than granitic compositional rocks
  4. D) are found primarily in continental interiors

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

10) Which of the following is not true of peridotite?

  1. A) It is rarely found at the Earth’s surface.
  2. B) It is denser than basaltic rocks.
  3. C) It is composed almost entirely of olivine and pyroxene.
  4. D) It is the main constituent of the Earth’s crust.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

11) Rocks that contain high amounts of silica typically also contain ________.

  1. A) iron, magnesium, potassium
  2. B) aluminum, magnesium, and potassium
  3. C) aluminum, sodium, and potassium
  4. D) calcium, magnesium, and potassium

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

12) Intrusive igneous rocks are often characterized as coarse-grained because ________.

  1. A) the pressures at depth cause them to have a rough texture
  2. B) the slow cooling at depth allows large crystals to grow
  3. C) the uplift process that exposes the rock fractures them and makes them rough
  4. D) small holes from escaping gases leave them rough and course

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

13) A porphyritic texture where large crystals are embedded in a matrix of small crystal may form when ________.

  1. A) climate change causes crystals to cool at different rates
  2. B) crystals of different compositions cool at different rates
  3. C) crystals of different compositions grow to different sizes
  4. D) a magma that has partially crystallized slowly moves to a different location where it then cools rapidly.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

14) Obsidian exhibits a ________ texture.

  1. A) fine-grained
  2. B) glassy
  3. C) coarse-grained
  4. D) porphyritic

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

15) Which igneous texture is characterized by two distinctively different crystal sizes?

  1. A) fine-grained
  2. B) glassy
  3. C) coarse-grained
  4. D) porphyritic

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

16) Granite and gabbro ________.

  1. A) have a similar mineral composition
  2. B) have a similar texture
  3. C) are similar in both texture and mineral composition
  4. D) are not similar in either texture or mineral composition

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

17) Rhyolite is the fine-grained equivalent of this igneous rock.

  1. A) basalt
  2. B) andesite
  3. C) granite
  4. D) diorite

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

18) Which one of the following is an igneous rock?

  1. A) limestone
  2. B) rhyolite
  3. C) slate
  4. D) shale

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

19) Select from the list below the coarse-grained rock which is composed mainly of quartz and potassium feldspar.

  1. A) basalt
  2. B) andesite
  3. C) granite
  4. D) diorite

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

20) The texture of an igneous rock ________.

  1. A) is controlled by the composition of magma
  2. B) determines the color of the rock
  3. C) is caused by leaching
  4. D) records the rock’s cooling history

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

21) Igneous rock is formed ________.

  1. A) by the weathering of preexisting rocks
  2. B) by changes in mineral composition
  3. C) at great depth within Earth
  4. D) by crystallization of magma

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

22) The first step in turning a rock into a sediment is ________.

  1. A) gravity and erosional agents (wind, water, etc.) remove material from the parent rock
  2. B) rock is broken into small pieces during the transportation phase
  3. C) weathering alters the rock
  4. D) compaction

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

23) Most sediment is formed by ________.

  1. A) settling out of a fluid
  2. B) the downhill movement of material during mass wasting
  3. C) the rapid distribution of material in a mountain stream
  4. D) rocks that erode from the bottoms of glaciers

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

24) Which of the following is an economically important sedimentary rock?

  1. A) marble
  2. B) coal
  3. C) pumice
  4. D) calcite

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

25) Which of the following pairs are likely products of weathering granite?

  1. A) sandstone and calcite
  2. B) feldspar and mica
  3. C) clay and quartz
  4. D) olivine and pyroxene

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

26) Which of the following is not a product of the chemical weathering of potassium feldspar?

  1. A) silica
  2. B) potassium ions
  3. C) iron oxide
  4. D) clay

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

27) Detrital sedimentary rocks are typically classified on the basis of their ________.

  1. A) lithology
  2. B) texture
  3. C) provenance
  4. D) particle size

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

28) Breccia, a rock with angular particles, is likely to have traveled ________.

  1. A) in a mountain stream
  2. B) only a short distance
  3. C) a long distance
  4. D) in a glacier

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

29) When sand lithifies, the resulting rock is commonly called ________.

  1. A) sandstone
  2. B) shale
  3. C) conglomerate
  4. D) breccia

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

30) The most common sedimentary rock is ________.

  1. A) sandstone
  2. B) shale
  3. C) conglomerate
  4. D) breccia

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

31) Silts and clays are commonly deposited in lakes, lagoons, swamps and marine environments because ________.

  1. A) those settings are more acidic
  2. B) those settings are more basic
  3. C) those settings have relatively still water
  4. D) those settings have highly varied activities and multiple inlets for water

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

32) Chemical sedimentary rocks form from materials ________.

  1. A) carried in solution
  2. B) too fine to see without a microscope
  3. C) that form weak bonds with oxygen
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

33) Limestone is formed primarily through ________.

  1. A) direct precipitation from seawater
  2. B) chemical interactions between ocean bottom sediments and ions in sea water
  3. C) biochemical sediments secreted by marine organisms
  4. D) evaporation of calcite rich seawater

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

34) Chalk forms from ________.

  1. A) the hard parts of microscopic organisms that accumulate on the sea floor
  2. B) magnesium rich fluids that chemically alter limestone bearing reefs
  3. C) direct precipitation from seawater
  4. D) evaporation of magnesium rich waters

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

35) Which one of the following is not related to chemical weathering?

  1. A) decomposition
  2. B) frost wedging
  3. C) hydrolysis
  4. D) oxidation

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

36) Chemical weathering would be most effective ________.

  1. A) in a warm, dry climate
  2. B) in a cold, dry climate
  3. C) in a warm, humid climate
  4. D) equally in any kind of climate

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

37) Travertine, a form of limestone commonly found in caves, forms ________.

  1. A) when water in a cave is heated
  2. B) when water in a cave is cooled
  3. C) when carbon dioxide in the water escapes into the air
  4. D) when carbon dioxide from the air contacts the moisture in the cave

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

38) Death Valley is a site where ________ sedimentary rocks are common.

  1. A) detrital
  2. B) evaporite
  3. C) biochemical
  4. D) clastic

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

39) An important condition for the formation of coal is ________.

  1. A) abundant plant and animal life in a region
  2. B) decomposition of organic matter with abundant oxygen
  3. C) incomplete decomposition of organic matter due to a lack of oxygen
  4. D) acid rich waters that reduce the organic matter to pure carbon

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

40) Sedimentary rocks comprise approximately ________ percent of Earth’s outermost 10 miles.

  1. A) 5
  2. B) 15
  3. C) 30
  4. D) 50

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

41) Which rock type is associated with a high-energy environment (such as a very turbulent stream)?

  1. A) conglomerate
  2. B) shale
  3. C) chert
  4. D) none of these

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

42) Detrital sediments would predominate in all of the following environments except ________.

  1. A) swamp
  2. B) salt flat
  3. C) river floodplain
  4. D) delta

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

43) Compaction would probably be most significant as a lithification process for ________.

  1. A) shale
  2. B) sandstone
  3. C) conglomerate
  4. D) breccia

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

44) The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock is ________.

  1. A) limestone
  2. B) dolomite
  3. C) chert
  4. D) rock salt

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

45) Which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and rock salt?

  1. A) detrital sedimentary rocks
  2. B) varieties of dolostone
  3. C) varieties of coal and peat
  4. D) evaporates; chemical, sedimentary rocks

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

46) Coal beds originate in ________.

  1. A) shallow lakes in a dry, desert region
  2. B) channels of fast-moving streams
  3. C) deep, marine basins below wave action
  4. D) freshwater coastal swamps and bogs

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

47) The common source of pressure during compaction of sediments is ________.

  1. A) the weight of the sediments deposited above the compacting sediments
  2. B) the pressure of the sediments pushing the compacting sediments out of the way during deposition
  3. C) the weight of the compacting sediments causing internal pressure
  4. D) the weight of water above the sediments after they are deposited

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

48) For a geologist, the most important characteristic of a sedimentary rock is its ________.

  1. A) texture
  2. B) composition
  3. C) layering
  4. D) lithology

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

49) Metamorphism occurs when a rock ________.

  1. A) experiences conditions that include high temperatures
  2. B) experiences conditions that include high pressures
  3. C) experiences conditions that are significantly different from those that formed the rock
  4. D) experiences conditions that are similar to those that formed the rock

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

50) The low grade metamorphism of shale produces ________.

  1. A) marble
  2. B) schist
  3. C) gneiss
  4. D) slate

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

51) Mountain building causes metamorphism because ________.

  1. A) mountains are heavy and they compress the rocks under them.
  2. B) mountains are heavy and they push shallow, cool rocks to depths where they get heated
  3. C) mountains form by the gradual buildup of material that comes from other areas and this can produce an uneven pressure on rocks
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

52) The most important agent(s) of metamorphism, according to your text, is (are) ________.

  1. A) chemically active fluids
  2. B) heat
  3. C) differential stress
  4. D) confining pressure

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

53) The major role of thermal energy (heat) in metamorphism is ________.

  1. A) reducing the strength of rocks so that stress can be an effective agent of change
  2. B) increasing the processes of dissolution and flow of different minerals
  3. C) driving chemical reactions that lead to recrystallization
  4. D) providing energy for the physical changes that occur during metamorphism

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

54) In an area where the temperature increase with depth averages 20°C per kilometer, the temperature at a depth of 5 kilometers would be ________.

  1. A) 100°C
  2. B) 200°C
  3. C) 50°C
  4. D) 20°C

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

55) The quartz in granite begins to melt at 650°C, so if we find a migmatite where quartz has melted in a granitic rock and we know the temperature in the region increased with depth by about 25°C per kilometer, we could estimate the depth that the rock had been at to be about ________.

  1. A) 12.5 km
  2. B) 18.0 km
  3. C) 23.5 km
  4. D) 26.0 km

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

56) Confining pressure is where ________.

  1. A) forces are applied equally in all directions
  2. B) forces are applied from the top and the bottom equally
  3. C) pressure is applied in a cubic region
  4. D) pressure is parallel to the bedding planes

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

57) When rocks experience high temperatures and differential stresses deep in the Earth, their grains tend to ________.

  1. A) break in small fragments like a piece of fine crystal
  2. B) fracture along planes of weakness
  3. C) flatten and elongate
  4. D) form new minerals

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

58) Chemically active fluids are ________.

  1. A) fluids that readily change to gases at surface conditions
  2. B) fluids that contain large quantities of oxygen which reacts with most minerals to form new minerals during metamorphism
  3. C) more acidic than regular fluids
  4. D) more basic than regular fluids

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

59) Recrystallization during metamorphism causes grains to grow longer in the ________.

  1. A) direction of maximum differential stress
  2. B) direction perpendicular to the compressional stress
  3. C) direction parallel to the compressional stress
  4. D) horizontal direction

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

60) Slate is ________ than shale.

  1. A) more planar
  2. B) darker
  3. C) denser
  4. D) lighter

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

61) Which of the following is not an example of a foliation in a metamorphic rock?

  1. A) compositional banding
  2. B) bedding planes and strata
  3. C) parallel alignment of flattened pebbles
  4. D) parallel alignment of platy or flat minerals

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

62) Which of the following changes may occur during metamorphism?

  1. A) Certain minerals may recrystallize.
  2. B) The rock becomes more compact.
  3. C) Crystals may grow larger.
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

63) The common rock produced by the metamorphism of limestone is ________.

  1. A) marble
  2. B) mica schist
  3. C) phyllite
  4. D) gneiss

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

64) ________ is composed of alternating bands of light and dark silicate minerals.

  1. A) Marble
  2. B) Mica schist
  3. C) Phyllite
  4. D) Gneiss

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

65) The primary agent of contact metamorphism is ________.

  1. A) folding
  2. B) heat
  3. C) stress
  4. D) strain

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

66) Which of the following lists the rocks in the order of increasing grain size and increasing grade of metamorphism?

  1. A) phyllite, slate, schist
  2. B) schist, slate, phyllite
  3. C) slate, phyllite, schist
  4. D) slate, schist, phyllite

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

67) Magma differentiation tends to produce deposits of ________ near the base of intrusions.

  1. A) gold
  2. B) silver
  3. C) chromite
  4. D) copper

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.5 Resources from Rocks and Minerals

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

68) The very large crystals of quartz, feldspar, and muscovite found in pegmatites form from ________.

  1. A) the early crystallizing parts of a magma
  2. B) the final crystallizing parts of a magma
  3. C) the middle crystallizing parts of a magma
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.5 Resources from Rocks and Minerals

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

69) The minerals gold, silver and mercury are often found in ________.

  1. A) hydrothermal veins
  2. B) the lower parts of an intrusion
  3. C) disseminated deposits
  4. D) alteration of limestone

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.5 Resources from Rocks and Minerals

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

70) A major difference between coal and oil/gas is ________.

  1. A) coal forms in deep marine environments and oil/gas form in shallow marine environments
  2. B) coal forms in shallow marine environments and oil/gas form in swamps
  3. C) coal forms in swamps and oil/gas form in marine environments
  4. D) coal forms on land from dinosaurs and oil/gas form from ancient fish

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.5 Resources from Rocks and Minerals

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

71) In order to get oil and gas in sufficient quantities to make a profit, an oil trap must exist with ________.

  1. A) no fractures or structure
  2. B) permeability and porosity
  3. C) lateral continuity that allows fluids to migrate
  4. D) shale with little or no sulfur.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.5 Resources from Rocks and Minerals

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Word Analysis.  Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

72) lava           magma           pahoehoe          aa

Answer:  magma

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

73) pyroxene      plagioclase          quartz           olivine

Answer:  quartz

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

74) granite          basalt            diorite              gabbro

Answer:  basalt

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

75) calcite        iron oxide           shale             silica

Answer:  shale

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

76) lithification        cementation        weathering           compaction

Answer:  weathering

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

77) shale          sandstone          breccia           conglomerate

Answer:  shale

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

78) confining pressure     differential stress        melting        chemical fluids

Answer:  melting

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

79) Under the right circumstances, any rock can be transformed into another type of rock in the rock cycle.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

80) The change from a sediment to a sedimentary rock typically involves burying the sediment.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

81) Magma is currently forming beneath the Rockies.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

82) Lava always erupts violently, but magma often flows quietly.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

83) Crystal size is controlled by temperature.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

84) Igneous rocks are composed primarily of sulfate-type minerals.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

85) Basaltic rocks make up most of the sea floor.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

86) Bowen’s reaction series predicts the sizes of the different mineral grains that grow from crystallizing magmas.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

87) Olivine and quartz are commonly found together in the same igneous rock.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

88) One magma can produce several different igneous rocks having different mineral compositions.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

89) Basalt is the fine-grained equivalent of gabbro.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

90) Glassy igneous rocks form when magma cools too fast for mineral grains to grow.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

91) Quartz is quite resistant to weathering and is an important component of sands in riverbeds and on beaches.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

92) Sedimentary rocks make up approximately 60 percent of the rocks in the Earth’s crust.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

93) Sedimentary rocks are an important source of information about the Earth’s history.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

94) Lignite and bituminous coals are sedimentary rocks.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

95) The particles in breccia are primarily silt sized.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

96) The most abundant sedimentary rock is shale.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

97) Evaporites have a biochemical origin.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

98) Particle size is the primary basis for distinguishing among various detrital sedimentary rocks.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

99) Most limestone has a biochemical origin.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

100) Compaction is most significant as a lithification process for sedimentary rocks composed of sand-sized particles.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

101) Every metamorphic rock has a parent rock from which it formed.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

102) During metamorphism, the material undergoing deformation remains a solid.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

103) In general, recrystallization tends to produce larger crystals.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

104) Slate is associated with high-grade metamorphism.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

105) Metamorphism can affect only sedimentary rocks.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

106) Most of the energy and mineral resources we use are renewable.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.5 Resources from Rocks and Minerals

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

107) An igneous rock that cools deep inside the Earth is called a(n) ________ igneous rock

Answer:  intrusive

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

108) Igneous rocks that contain mostly quartz and feldspar with small amounts of biotite would be described as having a(n) ________ composition.

Answer:  granitic

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

109) Igneous rocks are classified on the basis of what two main characteristics?

Answer:  texture and mineral composition

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

110) Obsidian exhibits a(n) ________ texture.

Answer:  glassy

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

111) If all of the olivine crystallized in a typical magma and then settled to the floor of the magma chamber, would there still be enough elements present in the magma to form quartz?

Answer:  Yes, there is much more silicon and oxygen present in a typical magma than iron and magnesium.

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

112) Rock salt and rock gypsum are common examples of a group of chemical sedimentary rocks called ________.

Answer:  evaporites

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

113) Probably the single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is ________.

Answer:  layering (strata or beds)

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

114) List three agents of metamorphism.

Answer:  heat, pressure, chemically active fluids

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

115) When a metamorphic rock exhibits a layered or banded appearance, it is said to exhibit a(n) ________ texture.

Answer:  foliated

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Critical Thinking and Discussion.  Use complete sentences, correct spelling, and the information presented in Chapter 3 to answer the questions below.

116) Why do most sediments end up being deposited in oceans instead of other parts of the Earth?

Answer:  There are a few explanations.  First, 2/3 of the Earth’s surface is oceans so it is most likely that anything on the Earth’s surface will be in an ocean.  In addition, most streams end in the oceans and the streams are one of the important mechanisms for moving sediment.  I would also add that gravity moves things downhill and the ocean basins are generally lower than the continental surfaces.

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

117) Fill in the missing rock names on the chart below.

Answer:  See Figure 3.7 in Earth Science, 14e.

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

118) What does Bowen’s reaction series tell us about how rocks evolve?

Answer:  Bowen’s reaction series gives the temperature and order in which minerals crystallize from a magma (or alternatively melting temperature and order).  For that reason, we can look at the constituent minerals in an igneous rock and get an idea of the temperature of the magma when it started to cool.  Minerals with high cooling temperatures will not usually be found with low cooling temperature minerals and this may indicate that the magma moved after the highest temperature rocks had crystallized.

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

119) Explain why sedimentary rocks are particularly important in studying the past history of the Earth.

Answer:  Sedimentary rocks form at the surface of the Earth, and during that process, they record information about conditions during their formation.  For example, a poorly sorted conglomerate will indicate the presence of a rapidly moving stream while a breccia will indicate rock types nearby its depositional site and may also indicate instabilities like earthquakes or landslides because of its rapid deposition.  The cements indicate the types of fluids traveling through the rocks, and fossils give information about the environment of deposition.

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

120) What type of stress (pressure) is illustrated in the diagram below?

Answer:  confining pressure

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

121) What type of stress (pressure) is illustrated in the diagram below?

Answer:  differential stress

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Earth Science, 14e (Tarbuck/Lutgens)

Chapter 13  The Ocean Floor

1) The oceans cover approximately ________ percent of Earth’s surface.

  1. A) 40
  2. B) 50
  3. C) 60
  4. D) 70

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1 The Vast Global Ocean

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

2) The ________ Ocean is largest.

  1. A) Atlantic
  2. B) Pacific
  3. C) Indian
  4. D) Arctic

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1 The Vast Global Ocean

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

3) Which ocean has the greatest average depth?

  1. A) Atlantic
  2. B) Pacific
  3. C) Indian
  4. D) Arctic

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1 The Vast Global Ocean

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

4) Concerning the distribution of land and water, which of the following statements is true?

  1. A) The percentage of land and water is about the same in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
  2. B) The Southern Hemisphere has much more water surface than the Northern Hemisphere.
  3. C) The Northern Hemisphere has much more water surface than the Southern Hemisphere.
  4. D) None of the above is true.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1 The Vast Global Ocean

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

5) Sailors in the 16th-18th century dreaded “rounding the horn” because of strong winds and heavy seas.  Cape Horn is about latitude 55°S at the tip of South America.  These sailors considered this a passage from the Atlantic to Pacific oceans, but this ocean is now often called ________.

  1. A) the Southern Ocean
  2. B) the Antarctic Ocean
  3. C) the Australian Ocean
  4. D) the Indian Ocean

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1 The Vast Global Ocean

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

6) An echo sounder operates by measuring the time required for a ________.

  1. A) light beam to travel from a satellite at a known altitude to the sea bottom and back
  2. B) radar beam to travel from a harbor patrol boat to a fuzz-buster on a speeding yacht
  3. C) radar beam to travel from a ship to the seafloor and back
  4. D) sound pulse travels from a ship to the seafloor and back

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2 An Emerging Picture of the Ocean Floor

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

7) The best modern technique for obtaining high resolution bathymetry of the seafloor is ________.

  1. A) sidescan sonar
  2. B) echo sounding
  3. C) seismic reflection profiling
  4. D) multibeam bathymetry

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2 An Emerging Picture of the Ocean Floor

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

8) Multibeam provides the best modern technique for obtaining seafloor bathymetry, so why hasn’t it been used for the entire ocean?

  1. A) It is too expensive, requiring many ships many years to survey the entire ocean.
  2. B) It doesn’t work in deep water.
  3. C) It doesn’t work where there is ice.
  4. D) Oceanographers simply haven’t had time to process all the data.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2 An Emerging Picture of the Ocean Floor

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

9) Ocean floor topography can be estimated from space using ________.

  1. A) high resolution measurements of the earth’s magnetic field
  2. B) laser beams that penetrate to the sea floor
  3. C) radar pulses that bounce off the ocean surface
  4. D) powerful sound waves that echo to the satellite

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2 An Emerging Picture of the Ocean Floor

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

10) Which one of the following is not part of the continental margin?

  1. A) continental shelf
  2. B) continental slope
  3. C) continental rise
  4. D) continental trench

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

11) It is thought that submarine canyons on the continental slope have been generated by ________.

  1. A) streams when sea level was much lower than it is today
  2. B) streams when sea level was much higher than it is today
  3. C) a submarine glaciations
  4. D) turbidity currents

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

12) Which one of the following would most likely be covered with thick turbidite layers?

  1. A) axial rift zone of an active mid-ocean spreading center
  2. B) upper part of a steep, narrow, submarine canyon
  3. C) deep-sea fan at the base of a continental slope
  4. D) ocean floor around a conical-shaped seamount

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

13) The best definition of the outer edge of the continental shelf is that point where ________.

  1. A) the gradient becomes very gentle
  2. B) the water depth reaches 100 fathoms
  3. C) it meets an oceanic ridge
  4. D) a rapid steepening of the gradient occurs

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

14) Which of the following generally has the lowest surface slope?

  1. A) continental slope
  2. B) continental rise
  3. C) continental shelf
  4. D) beach shoreface

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

15) Submarine canyons found on the continental slope are believed to have been created ________.

  1. A) by rivers during the ice age
  2. B) by faulting
  3. C) because of a plate plunging into the mantle
  4. D) none of these

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

16) In the Mississippi River delta in south Louisiana shallow subsurface imaging of the sediments reveal buried channels beneath delta sediments that are less than 10,000 years, and these channels extend offshore to the edge of the continental shelf.  What is a simple explanation for these buried channels?

  1. A) They represent giant flood events before the delta was formed and before the river formed.
  2. B) They represent channels of the Mississippi river delta when sea level was lower, during the ice age.
  3. C) The river must have been bigger in the past, cutting a channel clear to the edge of the shelf below sea level.
  4. D) Turbidity currents cut a submarine canyon on the shelf before the delta buried them.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

17) The gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is termed the ________.

  1. A) continental shelf
  2. B) continental slope
  3. C) continental rise
  4. D) submarine canyon

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

18) ________ develop where oceanic lithosphere bends downward and sinks into the mantle.

  1. A) Submarine canyons
  2. B) Abyssal seamounts
  3. C) Deep ocean trenches
  4. D) Rift valleys on mid-ocean ridges

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

19) The continental rise is located ________.

  1. A) at the top of a mid-ocean ridge
  2. B) at the top of the continental slope
  3. C) between an abyssal plain and continental slope
  4. D) at the seaward edge of a deep ocean trench

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

20) What is the difference between an active continental margin and a passive continental margin?

  1. A) A passive margin is the site of an ancient continental rift, left behind when seafloor spreading moved offshore, whereas an active margin is an active plate boundary.
  2. B) A passive margin is passively carried along by plate tectonics in a transform system, like the San Andreas whereas an active margin is a trench.
  3. C) An active margin receives large amounts of sediment whereas a passive margin is sediment starved.
  4. D) An active margin has earthquakes whereas a passive margin has quiet erupting (aka passive) volcanos.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

21) Where are the deepest parts of the oceans?

  1. A) along the base of the continental slope
  2. B) in rift valleys at sea floor spreading center
  3. C) in the abyssal plain
  4. D) in trenches

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

22) Subduction of oceanic lithosphere at the trenches can act like a bulldozer to produce ________.

  1. A) subduction erosion
  2. B) an accretionary wedge
  3. C) a subduction slope
  4. D) a strike slip fault like the San Andreas

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

23) Which of the following is not true of deep ocean trenches?

  1. A) They are long and narrow depressions.
  2. B) They are sites where plates plunge back into the mantle.
  3. C) They are geologically very stable.
  4. D) They may act as sediment traps.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.4 Features of Deep-Ocean Basins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

24) Seamounts ________.

  1. A) are a special type of oceanic trench
  2. B) are volcanoes that form on the ocean floor
  3. C) form only in the Pacific Ocean basin
  4. D) are submarine canyons found near Australia

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.4 Features of Deep-Ocean Basins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

25) The ________ Ocean has more extensive abyssal plains than the Pacific Ocean because it has fewer trenches to trap sediments moving down the continental slope.

  1. A) Indian
  2. B) Atlantic
  3. C) Arctic
  4. D) none of these

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.4 Features of Deep-Ocean Basins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

26) Deep sea trenches are important features for plate tectonic studies because ________.

  1. A) they are sites where oceanic lithosphere is formed
  2. B) they are sites where two plate move past each other horizontally
  3. C) they are sites where the oceanic lithosphere is consumed into the mantle
  4. D) none of the above

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.4 Features of Deep-Ocean Basins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

27) If Yellowstone were on the ocean floor, it would produce ________.

  1. A) a chain of line islands, like Hawaii
  2. B) an island arc
  3. C) a trench
  4. D) a mid-ocean ridge

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.4 Features of Deep-Ocean Basins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

28) Abyssal plains are very flat because ________.

  1. A) basalt volcanos on the seafloor produce little terrain
  2. B) sediments accumulate to cover the seafloor topography
  3. C) they have flat faults, the form flat, planar topography
  4. D) they are not really flat; it is just that there is no data so they are shown as flat

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.4 Features of Deep-Ocean Basins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

29) Which of the following is associated with ocean ridges?

  1. A) rift zones
  2. B) mountainous topography
  3. C) volcanic structures
  4. D) all of these

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.5 The Oceanic Ridge

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

30) The crests of mid-oceanic ridges ________.

  1. A) are heavily mantled with sediment
  2. B) lie at depths exceeding 6 kilometers
  3. C) contain active rift zones
  4. D) are geologically old features

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.5 The Oceanic Ridge

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

31) Which one of the following concerning mid-ocean ridges is false?

  1. A) They are sites for submarine eruptions of basaltic lava.
  2. B) They are where young lithosphere is added to the edges of spreading, oceanic plates.
  3. C) Terrigenous sediment coverings are very thin or absent.
  4. D) Sediments include thick siliceous ooze deposits and sandy turbidite beds.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.5 The Oceanic Ridge

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

32) “Black smokers” are associated with ________.

  1. A) oceanic ridges
  2. B) mineral-rich waters
  3. C) hot water
  4. D) all of these

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.5 The Oceanic Ridge

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

33) Ocean ridges form because ________.

  1. A) rocks bulge up in ridges along transform faults associated with the ridge
  2. B) they are a broad seafloor highland formed by sea floor spreading
  3. C) they are submarine collisional mountain belts, forming submarine mountains that haven’t yet risen from the sea floor
  4. D) they are chains of volcanos, like the Hawaiian Islands, that form along hot spots

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.5 The Oceanic Ridge

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

34) The seafloor spreading process at ridges produces what kind of faults?

  1. A) normal faults
  2. B) thrust fault
  3. C) strike-slip faults
  4. D) oblique-slip faults

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.5 The Oceanic Ridge

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

35) Earlier we discussed the concept of isostasy, where lower density rocks rise higher than higher density rocks.  How is the variation of water depth at spreading centers (ridges) controlled by isostasy?

  1. A) Volcanic rocks are lighter than other rocks, and so the abundant volcanic rocks at the ridges are lower density features that produce the seafloor topography.
  2. B) It has nothing to do with isostasy; the areas are simply high because there are chains of active volcanos along the ridge crest, producing the topography.
  3. C) Oceanic ridges are sites where the lithosphere is carried into the mantle on one side (aka subduction zones), and the volcanos along these margins produce the ridge by buildup of lower density crust.
  4. D) The lithosphere cools as it moves away from the ridge axis by sea floor spreading, and cooler rocks are lower density, so the sea floor gets deeper as the lithosphere gets more dense.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.5 The Oceanic Ridge

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

36) Convective cooling cools rocks much more rapidly than heat conduction.  Hydrothermal circulation represents convective cooling at ocean ridges and is well known from things like black smokes, but only occurs close to the spreading ridge axis.  When geophysicists measure the geothermal gradient in areas along ridges where there is no hydrothermal activity, the thermal gradient is far below what you would predict theoretically, but near hydrothermal vents it is far more than you would predict.  Why would this be?

  1. A) The measurements are incorrect because it is too hot to measure thermal gradient in molten rock.
  2. B) Most of the heat is carried away by convection as hydrothermal systems, so the average geothermal gradient away from the hydrothermal circulation is depressed.
  3. C) Organisms growing around hydrothermal vents disturb the thermal properties, insulating the surface, to make an apparent high thermal gradient.
  4. D) The thermal gradient in water represented by the hydrothermal system must be different than the rock, so it is measurement artifact.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.5 The Oceanic Ridge

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

37) Why are there virtually no sediments at ocean ridges, even when they are close to land?

  1. A) The sediments get buried by volcanic rocks, so are not visible.
  2. B) The sediments get deflected from the topographic high of the ridge.
  3. C) The crust is too young; there hasn’t been enough time for sediments to accumulate.
  4. D) No one knows, it is one of the mysteries of geology.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.5 The Oceanic Ridge

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

38) How do calcareous oozes form?

  1. A) The particles are precipitated in warm surface waters and sink to the bottom.
  2. B) The particles are precipitated by bottom-dwelling organisms.
  3. C) The particles are precipitated in the water column below the depth of sunlight penetration and then sink to the bottom.
  4. D) The particles settle out from calcite-rich turbidity currents at depths greater than 15,000 feet.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

39) Sediments derived primarily from the products of weathering on the continents are called ________.

  1. A) terrigenous sediment
  2. B) biogenous sediment
  3. C) hydrogenous sediment
  4. D) both terrigenous and biogenous sediment

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

40) Manganese nodules are an example of ________.

  1. A) terrigenous sediment
  2. B) biogenous sediment
  3. C) hydrogenous sediment
  4. D) both terrigenous and biogenous sediment

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

41) Minerals that crystallize directly from seawater are examples of ________.

  1. A) terrigenous sediment
  2. B) biogenous sediment
  3. C) hydrogenous sediment
  4. D) both terrigenous and biogenous sediment

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

42) Radiolarian chert is a common sedimentary rock accreted along active margins in the circum-pacific.  It is produced in the deep sea by the accumulation of siliceous radiolarian shells.  What kind of sediment is radiolarian chert?

  1. A) terrigenous sediment
  2. B) biogenous sediment
  3. C) hydrogenous sediment
  4. D) both terrigenous and biogenous sediment

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

43) A geologist is studying sediments on land that were originally deep sea sediments.  She finds the minerals zircon and garnet in the sediments, which could only come from a continental region.  These sediments must be ________.

  1. A) terrigenous sediment
  2. B) biogenous sediment
  3. C) hydrogenous sediment
  4. D) both terrigenous and biogenous sediment

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

44) Much of the Gulf of Mexico is underlain by large thicknesses of salt that formed in a small ocean basin like the red sea, as the north Atlantic spreading began in Mesozoic time.  This salt is a good example of ________.

  1. A) terrigenous sediment
  2. B) biogenous sediment
  3. C) hydrogenous sediment
  4. D) both terrigenous and biogenous sediment

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

45) Micro-organisms called foraminifera have tiny coiled shells with chambers, not unlike the chambering nautilus but much smaller.  In modern oceans the coiling direction of foraminifera shells is correlated to temperature.  Using coiling direction from foraminifera fossils is an example of ________.

  1. A) using the fossil as a paleo-depth indicator because water temperature varies with depth
  2. B) using the fossil’s coiling direction is a proxy for climate because the surface water temperature would be highly correlated to surface temperature
  3. C) using isotopes to fingerprint temperature
  4. D) geomagic; the whole idea is preposterous

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

46) When organisms living in seawater grow shells, the ratio between the isotopes of oxygen (18O/16O) trapped in their shell is dependent on the sea temperature.  Why might geologists collect these sea shells from deep-sea sediments that are Pleistocene in age and measure their oxygen isotope ratios?

  1. A) They might want to know how cold the water was at the seafloor in the past.
  2. B) They want to know how metabolism of the organism affects the oxygen isotope ratios.
  3. C) The organisms live in the photic zone, and so photosynthesis must be the main factor in the oxygen content.
  4. D) The organisms live near the surface, so their oxygen isotope ratios record surface temperature during Earth’s great climate fluctuations of the ice age.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

47) African dust from the Sahara desert is observed across the Atlantic as far west as the Caribbean region where it produces a hazy sky condition during the annual dry season. You are a climate scientist and make a prediction that the Sahara was not a desert during glacial periods in the northern hemisphere.  How could you test this hypothesis by looking at deep sea sediments from the Atlantic off west Africa?

  1. A) You would look at fossils to see if there were organisms that preferred dusty conditions vs. clear water conditions.
  2. B) You could look at the sediments to see if there were biogenic sediments interbedded with sediments with terrigeneous input corresponding to the dry, interglacial intervals.
  3. C) You could measure the isotopes in the sediment to estimate the sea surface temperatures.
  4. D) The hypothesis is untestable with deep sea sediment.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

48) Most of our table salt comes from ________.

  1. A) salt taken from mines
  2. B) salt obtained by evaporating seawater in dry climates
  3. C) combining the metal sodium and the nonmetal chlorine gas in a chemical reaction vessel to make pure NaCl
  4. D) China

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.7 Resources from the Sea Floor

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

49) In the  present day, what is the most valuable non-living commodity obtained from sea floor?

  1. A) sand and gravel
  2. B) gold
  3. C) oil and gas
  4. D) gas hydrate

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.7 Resources from the Sea Floor

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

50) Why isn’t manganese mined on the seabed when there are abundant manganese nodules in some parts of the ocean floor?

  1. A) The manganese is too difficult to extract from the nodules; a new technology is needed.
  2. B) It is not economical to mine manganese nodules at present-day world prices for manganese and associated metals in nodules.
  3. C) The manganese market is held by a global cartel who prevent the material from being mined.
  4. D) It is impossible to extract the nodules from the seafloor with present-day technology.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.7 Resources from the Sea Floor

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

51) The 2010 deep water horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was a tragedy brought on in part by new technology allowing development of oil and gas reserves in deep water.  Given the scope of the spill, why would companies take a risk of such a disaster given the scope of the litigation following the disaster?

  1. A) They didn’t care about the risk, they just drove forward.
  2. B) The oil and gas industry is poor at assessing risk, and didn’t understand the risk.
  3. C) The potential profit is so large from a major oil find that the companies take the risk, try to use all cautions to minimize risk, but sometimes fail.
  4. D) They just assume their lawyers can win any lawsuit, regardless of the disaster.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.7 Resources from the Sea Floor

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

52) Why would a large concrete producing company be interested in the sea bed?

  1. A) as a source of lime from sea shells
  2. B) as a source of mud to mix with limestone to make Portland cement
  3. C) They can rape the sea bed without being prosecuted like they would in operating a quarry or gravel pit improperly.
  4. D) as a source of sand and gravel

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.7 Resources from the Sea Floor

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Matching:  Give the term of ocean floor sediment for each phrase.

biogenous        terrigenous      hydrogenous

53) manganese nodule

Answer:  hydrogenous

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

54) calcareous ooze

Answer:  biogenous

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

55) abyssal plain clay

Answer:  terrigenous

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

56) echo sounder         Doppler radar      sidescan sonar         radar altimeters

Answer:  Doppler radar

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.2 An Emerging Picture of the Ocean Floor

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

57) continental shelf         continental rise      continental slope         continental volcanic arc

Answer:  continental volcanic arc

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

58) rift valley        subduction         volcanic island arc          trench

Answer:  rift valley

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.4 Features of Deep-Ocean Basins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

59) manganese nodules      calcareous ooze       metal sulfides        evaporites

Answer:  evaporites

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

60) The deepest point in the ocean is in the Indonesian trench, off Sumatra, where the 2004 Earthquake occurred.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1 The Vast Global Ocean

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

61) Most of the world’s landmass is in the northern hemisphere.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1 The Vast Global Ocean

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

62) The west coast of South America and the east coast of North America have very different continental margins.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

63) Submarine canyons form the deepest parts of the ocean basins.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

64) The continental rise lies at the bottom of the continental slope.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

65) Abyssal plains with sediments covering the seafloor igneous rocks are more extensive in the central Pacific basin than in the North Atlantic.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.4 Features of Deep-Ocean Basins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

66) Submerged, flat-topped seamounts are known as guyots.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.4 Features of Deep-Ocean Basins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

67) Seafloor hot springs occur mainly in oceanic, abyssal plains.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.4 Features of Deep-Ocean Basins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

68) The Atlantic and Pacific basins have oceanic ridges; the Indian Ocean has no oceanic ridge.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.5 The Oceanic Ridge

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

69) Manganese nodules do not accumulate below 4500 meters depth because the manganese minerals are highly soluble in seawater below that depth.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

70) Turbidites and siliceous oozes are both biogenous sediments.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

71) Sand, silt, and clays deposited on the ocean floor are described as terrigenous sediments.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

72) The second most important economic mineral resource extracted from the seafloor today is manganese from manganese nodules.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.7 Resources from the Sea Floor

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

73) Oil and gas resources are rare on the continental slope and continental rise.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.7 Resources from the Sea Floor

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

74) The lowest point on earth is in the ________ Ocean.

Answer:  Pacific

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.1 The Vast Global Ocean

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

75) The principal technique for finding ocean depth today is ________.

Answer:  sonar (or echo sounding, or multibeam sonar)

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.2 An Emerging Picture of the Ocean Floor

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

76) ________ continental margins occur where oceanic lithosphere is being subducted beneath the edge of a continent.

Answer:  Active (or subduction)

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

77) The gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is termed the ________.

Answer:  continental shelf

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

78) Valleys that lead from the continental shelf into deeper waters are known as ________.

Answer:  submarine canyons

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

79) ________ continental margins typically exhibit wide, extensive, continental shelves.

Answer:  Passive

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

80) Flat-topped volcanic structures located on the floor of the deep ocean basin are termed ________.

Answer:  guyots

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.4 Features of Deep-Ocean Basins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

81) A(n) ________ is a volcanic mountain, built up from the seafloor that never reached the sea surface.

Answer:  seamount

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.4 Features of Deep-Ocean Basins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

82) A(n) ________ is the vast, relatively deep, flat, sediment-covered portion of the deep-ocean basin.

Answer:  abyssal plain

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.4 Features of Deep-Ocean Basins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

83) A(n) ________ marks the site where old, oceanic lithosphere begins its descent into a subduction zone.

Answer:  trench

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.4 Features of Deep-Ocean Basins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

84) The most extensive mountain range on Earth extends for about 65,000 kilometers on the ocean floor and is known as the ________.

Answer:  mid-ocean ridge

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.5 The Oceanic Ridge

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

85) A prominent feature of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a very deep linear valley known as a(n) ________ valley.

Answer:  rift

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.5 The Oceanic Ridge

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

86) ________ sediment consists of shells and hard parts of marine organisms.

Answer:  Biogenous

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

87) Manganese nodules are an example of ________ sediment.

Answer:  hydrogenous

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

88) The most important economic resource in the ocean today is ________.

Answer:  oil and gas

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.7 Resources from the Sea Floor

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

89) What energy resource is present in the oceans with far more energy reserves than conventional oil and gas?

Answer:  gas hydrates

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.7 Resources from the Sea Floor

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Critical Thinking and Discussion.  Use complete sentences, correct spelling, and the information presented in Chapter 13 to answer the questions below.

90) What type of continental margin is illustrated in the diagram below?

Answer:  active continental margin

Diff: 1

Topic:  13.3 Continental Margins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

91) Examine Figure 13.B from Earth Science, 14e below. Briefly explain the main points of Charles Darwin’s hypothesis on coral atoll formation. Have we tested his hypothesis and is it still thought to be correct today? Can you think of another possible explanation that would explain the origin of such coral atolls?

Answer:  Corals colonize and ring a volcanic island once it’s been formed.  Then, erosion attacks the top of the volcano and the plat also sinks when its away from the hotspot.  The corals have to grow upwards as a result, because they need light.  Eventually their growth doesn’t keep pace with the sinking and the reef is submerged, becoming a seamount.

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.4 Features of Deep-Ocean Basins

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

92) Discuss the distribution of seafloor sediments in the ocean basins. What are the different types of sediments, and what are the factors that control their distribution (geologic setting, climate, etc.)?

Answer:  The sediments nearest the continents are a record of terrestrial occurrences on Earth.  The sediments on the abyssal plain are a record of happenings in the photic zone of the ocean.  The sediments are wedge-shaped, being thinnest at the divergent boundary (mid-ocean ridge) and thickest next to the continents.

Diff: 2

Topic:  13.6 Seafloor Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis