Psychology Week 3 Discussion

This is a graded discussion: 25 points possible due May 25 at 1:59am

Week 3 Discussion: Learning & Memory 56 56

Required Resources Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Initial Post Instructions For the initial post, respond to one of the following options, and label the beginning of your post indicating either Option 1 or Option 2:

Be sure to make connections between your ideas and conclusions and the research, concepts, terms, and theory we are discussing this week.

Follow-Up Post Instructions Respond to at least two peers or one peer and the instructor. If possible, respond to one peer who chose an option different than the one you chose. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Writing Requirements

Grading This activity will be graded using the Discussion Grading Rubric. Please review the following link:

Course Outcomes (CO): 4

Textbook: Chapter 6, 7, 8, 9 Lesson

Option 1: What does it mean when you have learned something? Identify and describe an example of something you have learned recently using either the principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning or observational learning/social-cognitive learning. Ensure that you describe your example using the appropriate terminology associated with each learning theory. Option 2: Memory is a complex concept, why can we remember every word to a song we heard 10 years ago, but can’t remember why we walked into the kitchen less than 5 minutes ago? Why do we forget certain information, but remember others? Briefly describe a recent situation in which you forgot something important, referencing one of the theories of forgetting. What techniques could you have used to avoid forgetting this information?

Minimum of 3 posts (1 initial & 2 follow-up) Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source) APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Link (webpage): Discussion Guidelines

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Due Date for Initial Post: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Wednesday Due Date for Follow-Up Posts: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Sunday

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/69954)Renee Owens (Instructor) Apr 19, 2020

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You may begin posting in this discussion forum on Monday, May 17th.

This week, you have the option of choosing which topic to focus on for your initial response. You have the option of answering questions about Learning OR Memory for your initial response. For your follow up response, please respond to at least ONE classmate who chose a different initial response topic than you. For example, if you chose to discuss learning for your initial response, make sure you respond to one person who chose memory as their initial response. You must still respond to at least two classmates or one classmate and the instructor to meet your discussion requirements for the week.

*Please be sure to review the discussion guidelines via the link provided above as to make sure you understand how discussions will be graded. Remember to cite all of your sources in APA format (in-text citations and list of references)*

*Initial response should be submitted by Wednesday, May 20th, 11:59 pm MT and discussion requirements need to be met by Sunday, May 24th 11:59 pm MT.*

 

Option 1: Learning

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Feldman (2018, p. 169) defines learning as “a relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience”. In our readings this week, we learned about different theories of learning including, classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social-cognitive learning (observational learning).

 

Option 2: Memory

Memory is a complex concept, why can we remember every word to a song we heard 10 years ago, but can’t remember why we walked into the kitchen less than 5 minutes ago? The answer may lie in understanding how memory works and the differences between short-term memory and long-term memory (Howcast, 2017).

 

References

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

Howcast. (2017, October 19). Short-term memory vs. Long-term memory| Memory techniques. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XrYss9a_vlw

What does it mean when you have learned something? Identify and describe an example of something you have learned recently using either the principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning or observational learning/social- cognitive learning. Ensure that you describe your example using the appropriate terminology associated with each learning theory.

Short-Term Memory vs. Long-Term Memory | Mem…

Why do we forget certain information, but remember others? Briefly describe a recent situation in which you forgot something important, referencing one of the theories of forgetting.

What techniques could you have used to avoid forgetting this information?

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149517)Kaylyn Rich (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149517) Wednesday

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Hello Professor and classmates,

This week I chose to respond to Option 1 for my initial post. I personally believe you have learned something when you can effectively demonstrate that learning. That may mean that you can demonstrate that skill in a lab or clinical setting or maybe you can explain or teach that skill to another person. Either way I think one must demonstrate and working understanding of the concept or skill to say that you have learned it. This is often referred to as the “teach back method” and is commonly used in the healthcare field when explaining something to a patient.(Tamura-Lis, 2013) In my previous school I had begun to participate in a clinical environment. I think that this is a good example of both observational learning and operant conditioning. Observational learning is when you learn by observing someone else. (Feldman, 2018). Many of the hands-on skills like giving a bed bath or injections are demonstrated in both a lab environment as well as on a patient before you are ever allowed to attempt it yourself. According to Feldman (2018) operant conditioning has a central concept called reinforcement. “Reinforcement is the process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated.” Anything leading up to clinicals begins this process. You learn the information, and then you are asked to test your knowledge. If you know the material and spent an adequate amount of time studying those behaviors will be reinforced by the high grade on the test as well as the ability to repeat that success in clinicals. If you did not do the required work or learn the required material, you would be punished with a poor grade on that test or an inability to replicate that skill.

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

Tamura-Lis, W. (2014). Teach-back for quality education and patient safety. Urologie Nursing, 33(6), 267-271, 298. doi:10.7257/1053-816X.2013.33.6.267

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/145729)Amanda Chappell- Walkwitz (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/145729) Monday

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Hello Professor and classmates,

I’m going to be answering option one today.

Option 1:

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According to Feldman (2019), when you have learned something it means that you have experienced something that has caused a relatively permanent change in behavioral.

Recently I have learned statistics. The style of learning used was operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is when a voluntary response is strengthened or weakend, depending on the response’s favorable or unfavorable consequences (Feldman, 2019). So I know that studying hard and spending more time on troublesome concepts result in me doing well on tests and receiving a good grade. This is extremely favorable to me because the consequences of getting a good grade in the class are better chances for scholarships and financial aid, better understanding in future classes, and a gpa that looks good for when I eventually apply to go on the trip in place of the global/community health class later on school. I know this process to be true based on the positive experience with getting good grades in the past. In vocational school my high grades were rewarded with certificates and later when I became a registered medical assistant, part of the interview process was giving my potential employer a copy of my transcript. I had a 4.0 and I got the job. My prior experience of positive outcomes resulting from good grades would be called reinforcement. A reinforcer is a stimulus (job offer) that increases the probability that a preceding behavior (working hard for good grades) will occur again (Feldman, 2019). Learning statistics was shaped by the sort of assignments I had. Since statistics wasn’t something I could learn all at once, the class had to break down each concept for me. They were short and only covered one concept before moving on to the next one. This process of breaking down complicated concepts into small pieces of information to build on is called shaping (Feldman, 2019). Shaping, combined with the reinforcement of previous positive consequences for good grades, which is essential for operant conditioning, led me to learn statistics well enough to get an A in the class.

References:

 

Feldman, R. S. (2019). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/141373)Ganna Shvets (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/141373) Tuesday

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Hello Amanda,

Thank you for your valuable input in this week’s discussion. For me, learning effectively is about combining learning techniques and styles. Observational learning (Feldman, 2019, p.193) has proven to be successful for me, seeing someone perform a task and then have my take on it is definitely helpful in gaining experience with the task. However, the best results have been from operant conditioning done at school which has been positively reinforced studying hard by providing an increase in self-esteem with good grades, which promoted an increase in my efforts at school. Also, the teachers, professors are more likely to help those students who have proven to complete their assignments on time and generally meet expectations for the course.

I think it is my parents who have done a great job at properly reinforcing positive behaviors back when I

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was little, I was almost never punished but simply explained the consequences of bad decisions and why what I did was bad. I was thought appropriate ways to respond in a situation, which modified my behavior to a more desirable by my parents.

References

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/145729)Amanda Chappell- Walkwitz (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/145729) Tuesday

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Hi Ganna,

I’m actually better at observational learning in a lot of situations, I would much prefer being in a classroom as opposed to an online setting, but that’s not possible with our gen-ed classes. There were a few opportunities for observational learning, such as recorded lectures and some suggested YouTube videos, but there wasn’t a real way to ask questions unless it was via email. That said, I’m glad we have the opportunity to practice difference mechanisms of learning because I feel like it make us more well rounded. Thanks for the feedback!

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129318)Amanda Cafiero (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129318) Monday

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Hello Everyone,

 

Option 2: Memory is a complex concept, why can we remember every word to a song we heard 10 years ago, but can’t remember why we walked into the kitchen less than 5 minutes ago? Why do we forget certain information, but remember others? Briefly describe a recent situation in which you forgot something important, referencing one of the theories of forgetting. What techniques could you have used to avoid forgetting this information?

There can be many reasons as to why we forget to do certain things, sometimes when we are so busy with school, work, a family and life, in general, we genuinely forget things that we have to do because maybe they aren’t as important as what you are doing in the moment. “How relevant is the memory to your life?” (Radwan, p.1). The last session while I was studying for my final, I kept reminding myself not to forget my index cards and kept saying it. As I sat down to study, I instantly realized I didn’t have my index cards which

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were so frustrating because that happened more than once. I feel the techniques I will use next time is to make sure when I think of getting index cards or a highlighter that I should do it when it pops into my head or I will most likely forget again.

 

Reference:

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Retrieved from: https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781260883817/cfi/6/2!/4/2@0:0 (https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781260883817/cfi/6/2!/4/2@0:0)

Radwan, F. (n.d.). 2 Know Myself: Why do we remember certain things but forget others Retrieved from

https://www.2knowmyself.com/why_do_we_remember_certain_things_but_forget_others

(https://www.2knowmyself.com/why_do_we_remember_certain_things_but_forget_others)

 

 

 

 

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/69954)Renee Owens (Instructor) Tuesday

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Hi Amanda,

Thank you for discussing memory! Which theory of forgetting discussed in our text do you think could account for you forgetting your index cards multiple times?

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129318)Amanda Cafiero (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129318) Tuesday

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Dr. Owens,

I feel that i can attribute this to the short term memory theory. Due to the fact us students have to retain so much information that we often forget trivial things like forgetting index cards over and over again.

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/134158)Maxwell Agu (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/134158) Monday

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Hi Everyone,

Option 1

Learning is a fundamental topic for psychologists and plays a central role in almost every specialty area of psychology. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience (Feldman, 2018). Learning something is the ability to acquire new information, skills to the brain in such a way that one will understand it , able to teach it to someone and as well apply the knowledge to something as a sign of effective understanding. As Classical conditioning learning is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus (such as the experimenter’s footsteps) comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus (such as food) that naturally brings about that response. (Feldman, 2018). It can also refer to as a systematic procedure whereby associations and responses to specific stimulus are been learned. Recently I have learnt a new skill on how to deal with college algebra or any sort of algebra but one funny thing is that whenever the professor comes in to class with un announced test to be taken, I will begin to shiver or exhibit some kind of fear simply because of not been prepared for it which tends be unconditional stimulus, but whenever she comes in to the class for normal lecture, with no unannounced test, i won’t shiver nor been sacred which is regarded as neutral stimulus but, if it happens that each week she comes in to the class whereby it’s required that a test must be taken after lecture which might make me to shiver and is what is said to be conditional stimulus simply because “neutral stimulus has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus” ( Feldman, 2018). Lastly, the professor comes in class without announcing any form of test or exam, which i might still be shivered and that is considered to be conditioned response. Operant conditioning is learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on the response’s favorable or unfavorable consequences. When we say that a response has been strengthened or weakened, we mean that it has been made more or less likely to recur regularly (Feldman, 2018). Just for an example , as i learnt that turning the wheel of my car to right, will turn the car right, the car going right will reinforces my behavior of turning the wheel right and my behavior turning the wheel of my car right when I want to go right will thereby increases.

 

Reference

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education

 

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/69954)Renee Owens (Instructor) !

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Hi Maxwell,

Thank you for discussing operant conditioning and classical conditioning (great example!)! As you explained operant conditioning is learning through consequences and includes reinforcement and punishment. Do you think that punishment can effectively modify behavior? What are some of the downsides of punishment?

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/134158)Maxwell Agu (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/134158) Yesterday

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Hi Professor,

Absolutely yes , I strongly believe that punishment can effectively modify someone behavior because it is meant to discourage some certain behavior, just for example, driving a car towards a stop sign which you are required by law to stop but you accelerated and it’s obvious that ticket will be issued. However, the behavior of accelerating towards the stops sign is punishable by a violation ticket whereby in future, accelerating towards a stop sign will decreased because of its punishment.

 

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/134006)Allyn Raatz (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/134006) Monday

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Hello Professor and classmates,

Memory has been a topic of mine for the past few years. I swear there is such a thing as mommy brain. When you are so distracted, and your brain is overcrowded it’s easy to drop pieces of information from your short-term memory. So many times I will forget to bring certain things when leaving the house or will have no clue why I just walked into the kitchen. Short term memory is best memorized in chunks. It only lasts 15-25 seconds and then is forgotten unless stored into long term memory. I can easily remember memories from when I was young or special moments in time that were stored in long term memory that I can easily access and remember in detail. But when it comes to phone numbers for example, even broken down into chunks, I forget right away. Or even when I am reading a recipe, I may go back several times to read the instructions.

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“Consequently, the reason for your memory failure is that you probably never encoded the information into long-term memory initially. Obviously, if the information was not placed in memory to start with, there is no way the information can be recalled” (Feldman, 2018). There are three theories of forgetting. Decay, Interference, and Cue dependent forgetting.

The other week I totally missed a very important doctor’s appointment because I didn’t write it down. Through time decay caused the loss of information in memory through nonuse. Because to much time passed since making the apt, and I didn’t write it down, It was completely lost from my memory. I recalled it once it was already too late, unfortunately. I could have written it down, used organization cues or effective notes to help remind me.

Reference

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/141373)Ganna Shvets (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/141373) Tuesday

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Hello Allyn,

Thank you for posting. I think the reason the saying “mommy brain” exists is that there are just so many distractions and lots of things to do, not to mention a whole new lifestyle to get used to when a woman becomes a mother. I think the reason it is hard for most of us to memorize phone numbers, recipe directions, names is that it is hard to encode that type of information because there isn’t much meaning to it. That information does not cause any emotion initially unless we have strong feelings attached to a certain phone number or it is the name of a person we actually know. Also, a lot of memory loss happens through the decay, of course. For example, I used to be rather fluent in German and French and now I am like “a smart dog” I understand but I can hardly put a sentence together. However, I am sure if I freshen up on my skills it will come back to me because I have been previously exposed to that information and had already encoded it at some point in the past.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129113)Mariechelle Tormis (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129113) Wednesday

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Allyn, Although I am not a mother myself, I can definitely identify the acts from a “mommy brain” from my mother and others who play that role. I found your initial post very interesting in the way that you connect examples to the material concepts of this class. As Feldman (2018) states “information that is stored briefly in sensory memory consists of representations of raw sensory stimuli, it is not meaningful to us”

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(p. 204). So, I think we can all agree it is not so easy to remember phone numbers and recipes in detail, simply because it has no specific meaning. We don’t put in the effort to store it as long term memory. Overall, well done Allyn!

– Shelley Tormis

References:

Feldman, R.S. (2018). Understanding Psychology (14th ed.) (Pg. 206, 227, and 230)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/148121)Nicolle Bray (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/148121) Monday

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Option 2: Memory is a complex concept, why can we remember every word to a song we heard 10 years ago, but can’t remember why we walked into the kitchen less than 5 minutes ago? Why do we forget certain information, but remember others? Briefly describe a recent situation in which you forgot something important, referencing one of the theories of forgetting. What techniques could you have used to avoid forgetting this information?

Since our memory works in different processes it can give us some insight into why we can remember a song we 10 years ago but can’t remember why we walked into the kitchen less than 5 minutes ago. The song we heard 10 years ago could have been something that we heard repeatedly causing it to transfer from our short-term memory to our long-term memory. A process called rehearsal (Feldman 2018). Since we are constantly going into our kitchens for different reasons it would not be stored in our short-term memory. We retain information in a variety of ways which can explain why we retain certain information but not others. Sensory memory can only store information for a short time according to R.S. Feldman. If we do not store the information properly we will not be able to remember it. The other day I had several different zoom meetings I needed to attend. I received an email with the different times for the meetings. Since I only glanced at the email and did not set myself reminders I ended up missing a meeting. This is a great example of interference. I was exposed to several different meeting times and ended up not remembering one. The other times had interfered with the one I forgot. I could have set reminders on my calendar. I could have also went through all the times in my head or recited them aloud for retention. I will use these techniques in the future so I do not forget vital information.

Feldman, R.S. (2018). Understanding Psychology (14th ed.) (Pg. 206, 227, and 230)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/69954)Renee Owens (Instructor) Tuesday

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Hello Nicolle,

Thank you for discussing memory! I believe that interference theory plays a role in much of my forgetting these days, especially with a new baby. I try and remember one thing, but new information interferes and I forget. Do you think that proactive or retroactive interference played a part in you forgetting your zoom meeting?

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/154100)Oluwatoyin Olugbenle (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/154100) Wednesday

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hello Dr Owens,

i think the proactive interference played a role in her forgetting some of her zoom meeting since proactive interference is when old information prevents the recall of newer information.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/148121)Nicolle Bray (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/148121) Yesterday

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I believe proactive interference played a part in the zoom meeting I forgot. Since I was trying to recall all of the zoom meetings I needed to attend one slipped through the cracks. All the information with the times was disrupted and I missed one. I was trying remember all of the times I had previously looked at was being interfered with the present meetings. Proactive interference is partially to blame for the meeting I missed.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129113)Mariechelle Tormis (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/129113) Monday

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Professor Owens and Class,

According to our textbook, Feldman (2018) claims that memory involves three separate processes that join together to form memories. Encoding, storage, and retrieval each represent the initial recording of a memory, which then stores for later to be remembered. There are two categories to this concept. Short-term and long- term memory. Short-term memory involves retaining information due to a sensory stimulus that does not last

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long, which is because it does not seem valuable. This is why we won’t remember walking into the kitchen less than five minutes ago but can keep in mind song lyrics form years ago. Long-term memory is responsible for this. Live Better With (2015) describes it as “events, facts or experiences that were laid down weeks, months or even years ago” (para. 1). While we can retain, as humans we also forget which may result from not closely paying attention in the first place. I feel like most of us can relate to forgetting material when it comes to test-taking. To help with this issue, our textbook suggests that we take effective notes and even talk to yourself. Going over information out loud to yourself can improve the chances of memorizing key concepts.

– Shelley Tormis

References:

Corr, K., Kate, & Corr, K. (n.d.). What’s the difference between short and long term memory? Retrieved from https://dementia.livebetterwith.com/blogs/advice/short-term-vs-long-term-memory-loss-whats-the-difference

Feldman, R. Understanding Psychology. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781260883817/

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/154100)Oluwatoyin Olugbenle (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/154100) Wednesday

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Hello shelley,

i totally agree with your discussion note taking and reviewing information continuously is a great way of retaining informations

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/134006)Allyn Raatz (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/134006) Wednesday

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Shelley,

 

I like how you talk about forgetting being a problem because we didn’t pay enough attention in the first place. This is so true. And in response to what you said on my discussion, this happens a lot when the information isn’t important enough for us to actually store in our long term memory. Unimportant, or insignificant information is just forgotten.

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/141373)Ganna Shvets (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/141373) Monday

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Hello everyone, and happy Monday!

I went with Option 2 for this week’s discussion.

Aside from memory dysfunctions, there are a few reasons we could forget something. There are a few types of memory: sensory, short-term, working, long-term, explicit, and implicit. It is a constructive process, and the more we try to process certain information, the more meaning it holds, the longer it is stored in our memory. The song we heard ten years ago could be a part of our flashbulb memory. It is a memory related to a specific event that was too important to forget that it remains vivid in our mind. It could be a song we danced to at high school graduation, for example (Feldman, 2018, p.217). We may forget something because we failed to initially encode the information by simply not paying enough attention to it.

Memory failures include decay, interference, and cue-dependent forgetting. Decay happens when we stop using the information learned previously, which causes it to fade away. We could also forget due to experiencing proactive interference in which the material learned earlier disrupts the newer content we are trying to learn. Or due to retroactive interference, which occurs when the material that we learned later disrupts our memory of the material learned earlier (Feldman, 2018, p.227). Cue-dependent forgetting occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to recall specific information. In other words, the more meaningful the information is, or the more repetitive it is in our everyday life, the more efficiently we can recall it.

Overall, I am satisfied with my memory. However, I forget things from time to time, mostly due to not paying enough attention to the information (interference or cue-dependent forgetting). I would sometimes forget my glasses at home or my metro card in another purse (cue-dependent forgetting). I can memorize the school material relatively well; however, I do not get a perfect score on all of my assignments (decay or interference). It happens due to a lack of time or energy. I always think and plan, so sometimes certain information in the present moment escapes my mind, and I do things automatically (interference). I would recommend myself to try and slow down so that I can be in the moment and avoid forgetting little things and making silly mistakes. Organizing my day in writing would be helpful or at least making notes of important things that I have to remember. Talking to myself may sound crazy, but it does help me remember things like names, phone numbers, or whenever I try to answer a question during a quiz. I try to use the new information I learn at school and apply it to my everyday life. Sometimes it would be telling my parents, friends, boyfriend about what I have learned, or watching a video about it so that I could have some imagery to relate to the words I have read and listened to. Collins (2014) relates memory to physiological mechanisms and highlights ideas that present memory as a physical entity, which can be improved through a healthy life, deploying a strong will, and knowing the natural laws of mind. I have always believed in a strong connection between our bodies and minds. Therefore, I do not doubt that a healthy lifestyle has a positive influence on our mind, memory included.

References

Collins, A.F. (2014). Advice for improving memory: exercising, strengthening, and cultivating natural memory,

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1860-1910. Journal of the history of the behavioral sciences, 50(1), 37-57. doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21643

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

 

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/69954)Renee Owens (Instructor) Tuesday

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The Big Bang Theory: Reinforcement or Punishment?

Some of you may watch or used to watch The Big Bang Theory and have already seen this episode, “The Gothowitz Deviation”. In the clip, Sheldon talks about using operant conditioning with Penny to change the behaviors he doesn’t like, but he doesn’t explain it correctly. Can you spot the mistake in the dialogue? If so, explain what Sheldon got wrong.

 

References

The Big Bang Theory. (2009). Positive reinforcement- The Big Bang Theory. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JA96Fba-WHk

Positive Reinforcement – The Big Bang Theory

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/145729)Amanda Chappell- Walkwitz (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/145729) Tuesday

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Hey Dr. Owens,

So at around 2.50 ish Sheldon refers to electric shocks or water in the face as negative reinforcement, but that isn’t the case. Those options would be punishment. Feldman (2018) tells us that negative reinforcement is something that removes an unpleasant stimulus while punishment is a stimulus meant to decrease the probability of the prior behavior from happening again (p. 180).

 

” Reply (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/discussion_topics/1863536?module_item_id=8510964#)

Feldman, R.S. (2018). Understanding Psychology (14th ed.) (P. 180)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/148780)Shakira Commander (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/148780) Tuesday

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Hello everyone,

I picked Option 2 and I’ve actually thought about this a lot! I remember all of Fergalicious lyrics, but forget a step at my job that I have done everyday for three years.

Interference theory states that forgetting occurs because memories interfere with and disrupt one another, in other words forgetting occurs because of interference from other memories (Baddeley, 1999). I was recently at my job checking vitals on patients and after I attempted to send the recording to file folder and completely blanked out on how to achieve this. I realize now that there was interference when i switched devices more specifically proactive interference. I had learned the previous way to switch files and because there was a new way. My old memories disrupt new memories from forming. Proactive interference highlights the importance of forgetting in our everyday lives. Failing to forget information that has become obsolete will disrupt and impair memory for current information.For example, thinking about where you parked your car yesterday may lead to forgetting where you parked today.

https://www.simplypsychology.org/forgetting.html (https://www.simplypsychology.org/forgetting.html)

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/140201)Kristin DiPasquale (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/140201) Tuesday

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!

 

Hello class,

I have chosen the first option to discuss in this week’s discussion.

What does is mean when you have learned something? It means that improvements have been made in your behavior that are a result of practicing (Feldman, 2018, p. 169). To understand and appreciate when learning has occurred it is important to know the different ways people learn. Classical conditioning, operant conditioning or observational learning/social-cognitive learning are a few ways to explain how people learn. Classical conditioning is defined as “a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus (such as the experimenter’s footsteps) comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus (such as food) that naturally brings about that response”, operant conditioning is defined as “learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on the response’s favorable or unfavorable consequences”, and observational learning/social-cognitive learning is a learning based off a cognitive learning theory which is defined as “an approach to the study of learning that focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning”(Feldman, 2018). Additionally, “The social cognitive theory of observational learning suggests that learners create a cognitive representation of a skill by abstracting critical features of the movement modeled” (Coker, 2019). I recently learned at my babysitting job how to replace the batteries for one of the child’s motorized toy truck. This truck has a unique battery pack that must be charged every night. I learned this through observational learning which is “learning by watching the behavior of another person”. The mother of the children showed me how to take the battery pack out, out the charger in it, and place a charged battery into it. After a few weeks of practicing I can say I know how to change the battery on my own.

References

Coker, C.(2019). Influence of Cueing strategies on gaze behavior during observational learning.

Physical Educator. Vol. 76 Issue 4, p990-1001. 12p.

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/106366)Blaire Cilindrello (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/106366) Wednesday

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For this discussion, I chose option 2 because I am interested in this topic for myself. When I was 19, I was diagnosed with Lyme disease. I was in the Army for 2 years at that point and I had grown up in New Jersey

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where I was always exposed to deer ticks that are infected with the disease. At age 18, I began having severe pain in my joints and swelling. I went to many medical doctors in the military, some who told me I was fine and there was nothing wrong while others told me that I was faking. Finally, I saw an internal medicine doctor who took the time to get an answer to my problems. I was treated with three months of antibiotics and never again received treatment. At age 19, I had my first operation due to Lyme and have had several more since then. Lyme has destroyed not only my joints, but my memory as well.

The people in my life always point out that I am forgetful. I apparently have whole conversations that I have zero recollection of ever having. This has been proven through recordings as I used to not believe that it was true. I thought there was no way that I could forget all these conversations. It was true. I have forgotten people I met that I spoke to on a daily basis. This embarrasses me and frustrates me, so I decided to look into this topic more.

According to the book, there are several reasons why we forget. They suggest that the person may not have been paying attention the first time and results in a failure to encode, or if a person has encoded the information, we may forget due to decay, interference, or cue-dependent forgetting. (Feldman, 2018). A failure to encode is when we do not pay attention and the material fails to become familiar. Decay is when we lose recall of information or skills because we no longer use them. Interference is when we cannot recall information because we are thinking of something else. For example, if it is 106 degrees outside and we are asked to recall something, we may not be able to focus on anything but the heat. Cue-dependent forgetting is like an example I like of losing our keys. We may not be able to recall where the keys are until we retrace our steps through the day (Feldman, 2018). This happened to me literally last night at work. I never ever put my keys in my scrub pocket, but I was going to go to my car at lunch. I ended up not going and left the keys in my pocket. They didn’t jingle in my pocket throughout the day. I was in a complete panic when it was time to leave for the night and I could not find my keys. I had to compose myself and retrace the last time I saw them.

One way that the book mentions and I have learned to do is write things out. I have to write lists to myself for everything. However, this has taken practice at organization because I began to have a bunch of lists that meant nothing to me, but were important. So I had to be more organized. Also, I find that if I talk to myself out loud and repeat things a few times over and over, I am able to recall some information a little bit better and for a little bit longer.

 

Reference:

Feldman, R. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/69954)Renee Owens (Instructor) Wednesday

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Memory Activity

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Week 3 Memory Activity (1).pptx (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/files/7831752/download?

download_frd=1&verifier=PgSopdnDhRsqsZzCrdrcF2kvL8JnBAjY9DYB2f3O)

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This week we read about the different processes and models of memory and will discuss some suggestions on how to improve your ability to remember things. Attached is a .pptx with instructions for the memory exercise (You can find the .pptx and a Word doc of the questions below in the Files section, Week 3, Discussion Activity folder).

After you have completed the short exercise, please answer 3-4 of the following questions:

1. What term is used for the type of retrieval used in this exercise? 2. Did you make any errors when writing down the list of words you saw? What term describes this

type of remembering? 3. Compare the words that you remembered and their order. What do you notice? 4. When the order affects memory it is called _________ ________ effect. 5. When the first terms are remembered the best, the ​​​​​​_________ effect is evident. 6. When the last terms are remembered the best, the _______ effect is evident. 7. Did you use any methods to help you remember the words? How well did they work or not work? 8. Did the picture shown for 20 seconds at the end of the list impact your recall of the words? Did it

help or hinder your memorization? Explain. 9. What other factors might have affected your performance on this memory task?

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/154100)Oluwatoyin Olugbenle (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/154100) Wednesday

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Option two

Hello Dr Owen and everyone,

Memory is defined as a term or process of acquiring, storing, retaining, and subsequently retrieving such information. The 3 stages of memory are the encoding, storage and retrieval stages. The way information can be encoded are by visual (picture), acoustic (sound) and semantic (meaning). The reason why we are able to remember a song we heard 10 years ago is because we have heard it repeatedly which transfers it to our long time memory since our long time memory deals with capacity and duration. And our inability to remember why we walked into the kitchen 5 minutes ago is because it goes into our short time memory which can hold information for about 0 to 30 seconds and this is easily forgotten since we do not rehearse this information so Feldman R.S states that our short time memory uses the sensory memory. Last week on my way to the store my kids asked for some extra stuffs which was not on my list initially and i did not put it on my list, because i thought I was going to remember when I get into the store I kept walking round the freezer aisle but couldn’t remember what I was there for, immediately I saw my kids on getting home I remembered why I was on the aisle. This happened because it was in my short time memory which only stores information for 0-30 seconds. So the technique I will use to avoid forgetting this information is to store it in my long time memory by rehearsing it or making a list of what I have to do to prevent me from forgetting.

Reference:

Feldman, R.S. (2018). understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill education.

McLeod, S. A. (2013, August 05). Stages of memory – encoding storage and retrieval. Simply Psychology. https://www.simplypsychology.org/memory.html

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/154100)Oluwatoyin Olugbenle (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/154100) Wednesday

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i think proactive interference was what happened to me because the older information prevented me from remembering the new one.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/138321)Chioma Anugwom (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/138321) Wednesday

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Oluwatoyin,

I enjoyed your story, I agree with you, we have to store things in our long term- memory so we can remember what we need to remember.

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149482)Shardae Collins (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149482) Wednesday

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This is very interesting. Thank you for sharing about the store. I can definitely relate to that with two children. I hate when I walk into a room or a store and forget what I am looking for or going to do. I will make more effort to make lists and rehearse the information so as to not forget it due to short term memory.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/131498)Holly Wolf (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/131498) Wednesday

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Hello All! This week I chose option 1

Feldman describes learning as “A relatively permanent change to behavior that is brought about by experience” (Feldman, 2018). One of the things we learned at a young age is to say ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ or ‘thank you’ and ‘you’re welcome’ if we think about classical conditioning our parents taught us to say thank you when someone complimented us or did something for us. Classical conditioning sees the stimulus as someone doing something for us to elicit the response of ‘thank you’ and the stimulus from another person eliciting the response of ‘you’re welcome’.

Social-cognitive learning is us learning from those around us, the above example can also be used with this type of learning. We watch our parents do things so we grow up, which we then begin to mimic, for example, talking. Our parents talk to us at a young age and we begin to recreate the same sounds which then become words.

Resources

Feldman, B. (2018). Understanding Psychology (14th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Vinney, C. (2019, January 20). Social Cognitive Theory: How We Learn From the Behavior of Others. Retrieved from

https://www.thoughtco.com/social-cognitive-theory-4174567

Chamberlain.instructure.com. 2020. <https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/pages/week-3-lesson-conditioning-learning-

memory-intelligence-and-language?module_item_id=8510958> [Accessed 20 May 2020].

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/148121)Nicolle Bray (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/148121) Yesterday

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Holly,

I think you did a great job explaining classical conditioning. The example that you gave of “please” and “thank you” was spot on. Our parents tech us a variety of things through classical conditioning. Feldman (2018) has a theory about cognitive learning. He said “cognitive learning theory suggests that it is not enough to say that people make responses because there is an assumed link between a stimulus and a response—a link that is the result of a past history of reinforcement for a response. Instead, according to this point of view, people and even lower animals develop an expectation that they will receive a reinforcer after making a response”. If we look at Feldman’s theory do you think we could consider learning “please” and “thank you” as an expectation as well?

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/148121)Nicolle Bray (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/148121) Yesterday

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Reference for above text:

Feldman, R.S. (2018), Understanding Psychology. (14th ed.) Pg. 191

 

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149582)Regina Ebanks (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149582) 9:30am

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Hey Holly!

 

Thank you for your input in this weeks’ discussion. I couldn’t agree more with your post. I believe classical conditioning is the main way we tend to learn… doing things over and over or hearing things over and over. That would lead to us retaining the information as explained in chapter 7, memory.

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/139330)Elise Stanton (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/139330) Wednesday

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Option 1: What does it mean when you have learned something? Identify and describe an example of something you have learned recently using either the principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning or observational learning/social-cognitive learning. Ensure that you describe your example using the appropriate terminology associated with each learning theory.

 

 

Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience (Feldman, 2016, p.169).

I have been wanting to paint the basement stairs and stairwell in my house. I wanted to paint a runner on the stairs as well. Being that I am a fist time homeowner, I did not know details about proper painting. I looked on YouTube and read online regarding proper paint to buy, how to prepare walls and stairs, proper technique for painting, how to paint the stairs and paint the runner. I spent a week watching videos and reading articles before I began. I would watch the same videos over and over. This type of learning is an example of observational learning. Observational learning is defined as which is learning by watching the behavior of another person, or model (Feldman, 2016, p.193). By watching, reading, and hearing different “models” to paint properly, I was then able to put what I learned into practice.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/136348)Krista Tad-Y (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/136348) Wednesday

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hello all!

Option 1

 

I see learning as a process. It’s the ability to grasp information brought by circumstances and experience to an individual in a specific period of time.

In psychology, the definition of Learning (https://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/9781260883817/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary/glossary.xhtml#glo271) is a relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience (Feldman, 2018). Learning something means you are equipped with information and being able to apply it to a certain situation. An

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example would be, how you respond.

 

A response shows how one understood or took the idea. And the response itself implicates the extent of what was learned.

 

As stated by Feldman (2018), Cognitive learning theory suggests that it is not enough to say that people make responses because there is an assumed link between a stimulus and a response—a link that is the result of a past history of reinforcement for a response. Instead, according to this point of view, people and even lower animals develop an expectation that they will receive a reinforcer after making a response.

 

When I was a little girl, I used to be my mother’s company in the kitchen. I would just sit on the chair and I stare at her while doing a lot of things such as cooking for our family meal. I enjoyed looking and observing what she was doing and remembered how the dishes smell like once it was ready. When I got married, I remember applying the same things to my husband and son. I would cook breakfast, lunch and dinner, remembering my mother’s recipe without her teaching me how to do it. Thus, the role of a mother and a wife also adds up to the routine that I know most mothers do.

 

I believe I learned because of this childhood memory. I was also a keen observer and my mother was my role model. According to psychologist Albert Bandura and colleagues, a major part of human learning consists of observational learning (https://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/9781260883817/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary/glossary.xhtml#glo326) , which is learning by watching the behavior of another person, or model (Feldman, 2018). Because of its reliance on observation of others—a social phenomenon—the perspective taken by Bandura is often referred to as a social cognitive approach to learning (Bandura, 2004, 2009; Waismeyer & Meltzoff, 2017).

 

Not only did I learn from my mother, but I believe a part of me was also imitating her actions. Thus, learning through imitation also took place. Therefore, I conclude that I went through observation and imitation methods of learning.

 

 

Reference:

 

Feldman, R.S. (2018). Understanding Psychology. Retreived May 20, 2020 from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781260883817/cfi/6/6!/4/6@0:0

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/118078)Anakari Martinez (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/118078) Wednesday

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Hello Professor and class,

Learning something means being able to perform or say what you have acquire from knowledge, behaviors, understanding, and skills. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought out by experience (Feldman, 2019). If you can not turn the concept into a competent performance, then you have not truly learned (Hall, 2017). Something that I have learned recently is working in construction, to be specific remodeling. My husband and I are small business owners, we opened our own home remodeling construction company (we have been open for a little bit over a year now). This past weekend I helped him with a few jobs he had lined up due to the rain. When we got to the first customer’s house, I did not know what to expect and what I will be doing. He then told me I will be helping him remove floor and trim. He demonstrated how to properly remove the floor and the trim around the walls so that the drywall would not get damaged. It only took him about five minutes to show me, after he showed me, I started to perform the tasks he had told me to do. I considered this observational learning. Observational learning is when you learn by watching the behavior of another person, or model (Feldman, 2019). Removing floor and trim was is easy to learn but it was not easy to perform, it was a lot of physical work.

Thank you

References

Feldman, R. (2019). Understanding Psychology. (14 edition). New York, NY. McGraw-Hill Education.

Hall, M. (2017, April 5). How Do You Know That You Have Learned? The coaching room. Retrieved from

https://www.thecoachingroom.com.au/blog/how-do-you-know-that-you-have-learned (https://www.thecoachingroom.com.au/blog/how-do-you-know-that-you-have-learned)

th

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149582)Regina Ebanks (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149582) Wednesday

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Hello everyone!

 

OPTION 2

 

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I chose option two which pertains to memory because I found it a little more interesting than option one which is about learning. You would need your memory to learn/ retain information so I guess you could say they correlate. I believe we all live for our memories, to make memories that are. Memories are sometimes triggered/ retrieved by emotions associated with it at the time (Crashcourse, 2014). One reason we can recall the words to a song we heard years ago because of the emotions we felt when we first heard the song, so it is stored in our long-term memory. One reason why we tend to forget things is because of interference. According to Feldman (2019) interference can be described as “information stored in memory disrupts the recall of other information stored in memory.” (p.227). this would account for the reason you can’t remember why we walked into the kitchen less than 5 minutes ago. We forget certain information and remember some because it was properly encoded. I lost my dad thirteen years ago and I have to admit, certain memories of him are fading. I sometimes can’t remember how he looks. This would be an example of memory decay and to avoid it I could look at pictures or ask to hear stories about him from my mom.

 

Reference:

 

Feldman, R. S. (2019). Understanding psychology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

 

[CrashCourse]. (2014, May 5). How We Make Memories: Crash Course Psychology #13. YouTube. https://youtu.be/bSycdIx-C48

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/138321)Chioma Anugwom (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/138321) Wednesday

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Option 2

According to Feldman (2019). Memory is a process by which we encode, store and retrieve information. Memory is our ability to encode, store , retain and subsequently recall information. It can be thought of in general terms as the use of past experience to affect or influence current behavior.

Our memory is composed of three storage system. Each has a different responsibility in the memory making process . These three networks are encoding, storage, retrieval. Encoding is the first step in creating memories, where a memorable event causes neurons to be stimulated more frequently. Secondly, storage is the ability to store or saved information for future use. Thirdly, retrieval or recovery of stored information.

The main reason why we do forgot certain information but remember others is that in order for us to store information and remember it, our senses have to capture them perfectly. For this to happen, our attention and perfection must be working at an optimal level. If not we will lose information about what has happened.

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The reason why we remember every word or song we heard 10 years age but can’t remember why we walked into the kitchen less than 5 minutes ago. For us to remember things or song we heard long time ago is because of long time memory where information is stored in a long term memory and a relatively permanent basis. But for not to remembering what we do less than 5 minutes ago must have been stored in a short-term memory, more especially something we don’t interest on can be store in short term memory.

I remember last months when I was studying, I remember I need to finish 2 chapters in my advance English. I went into my room to grab my textbook, when I get there I forgot exactly the particular textbook I need to take. I had to go back and sit down to think exactly what I wanted to do in my room, that’s when I remember. It was very funny.

 

Reference

www.psychologyandsociety.com/memory.html (http://www.psychologyandsociety.com/memory.html)

Feldman, R. s. (2018). Understanding Psychology(14th ed.). Dubuque: Mc Graw-Hill Education

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/134006)Allyn Raatz (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/134006) Wednesday

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Chioma,

 

This happens to me more than I would like to admit! Isy it funny how sometimes we have to retrace our steps tom remember something? Or as you said, you had to go back to where you were sitting to jog your memory of what it was exactly you were trying to go do. Thanks for your post!

 

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149482)Shardae Collins (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149482) Wednesday

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For this discussion I choose Option 1: I warn this is very personal and may be rough to read.

According to Robert Feldman, “learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience.” (2018) I have been recovering from drug addiction for 1 year now. I have a new conditioned response to the sight of a syringe (conditioned stimulus). Initially a syringe was and unconditioned stimulus

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that brought about no specific response within me. Then as my use went on (conditioning) I associated a syringe with getting high and a good feeling erupted within me (conditioned response). Now though, through a lot of intensive work on myself (reconditioning) the new conditioned response to a syringe (conditioned stimulus) is that of disgust and fear (new conditioned response). In the textbook there is even an excerpt about drug addiction. “Classical conditioning also explains why drug addictions are so difficult to treat. Drug addicts learn to associate certain stimuli—such as drug paraphernalia such as a syringe or a room where they use drugs—with the pleasant feelings produced by the drugs. So simply seeing a syringe or entering a certain room can produce reactions associated with the drug and continued cravings for it.” For me this rings true, and for others I have seen come through the place I got sober at. Thankfully with all the work I have done on my addiction and how to treat it, I have learned and reconditioned myself to find certain stimulus repulsive.

References

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/140851)Bernadette Young (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/140851) Wednesday

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Hi Everyone,

This week, I had a quiz for my Anatomy and Physiology class. One of the sections on the quiz was matching images to their corresponding term. The material that was covered in this section was covered in a class last week. When I was taking the quiz, however, I forgot the major points. Because of this, my quiz grade was brought down considerably.

What I experienced could be classified as cue-dependent forgetting. According to our textbook, cue- dependent forgetting is when you are unable to recall hints or prompts that could trigger your memory {Feldman, 2018, p.227). I could visualize the page in my personal notes and I could see the page from the textbook, but I could not recall the keywords I needed.

One technique that I could have used to not have forgotten this information is by learning and reviewing it every day for a few minutes. In a study done by Ezzyat et al., they found that object-word association material was better retained when it was distributed over two days rather than one (Ezzyat et al., 2018, p. 10252). Since this was a longer chapter I was not able to spend as much time reviewing all the concepts every day. I only spent 2 days on a section of the chapter but I was not able to go back and review again. If I would have been able to review the concepts I had more trouble with every day before the quiz I might have been able to recall the material easier.

References

Ezzyat, Y., Inhoff, M. C., & Davachi, L. (2018). Differentiation of Human Medial Prefrontal Cortex Activity

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Underlies Long-Term Resistance to Forgetting in Memory. The Journal of Neuroscience, 38(48), 10244- 10254. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.2290-17.2018

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/113660)Christyle Sinclair (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/113660) Wednesday

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Professor and Class,

The process of learning something is different for everyone. People show interest in particular topics will more likely remember facts about that topic, more so than remembering the name of the person you asked 10 seconds ago. “Learning (https://jigsaw.vitalsource.com/books/9781260883817/epub/OPS/s9ml/glossary/glossary.xhtml#glo271) is a relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience.” (Feldman, 2018). Learning is classified into three conditions- classical condition, operant conditions, and social-cognitive learning. Another form of learning is known as observational learning.

Classical conditioning can be looked at as natural instinct. It drives us to do things we do naturally, such as eating when hungry, drinking when thirsty, et cetera (Feldman, 2018). Operant conditioning is actions that are done in response to favorable or unfavorable conditions (Feldman, 2018). The A you got on your paper drives you to perform just as well; it motivates you to “reach for the sky’s”. On the contrary, the C you got on your paper disappoints you and enables you to push yourself even stronger. Social-cognitive learning is focused on “the study of higher mental processes.”; including processes such as decision making, judgment, and problem-solving (Feldman, 2018). Observational learning is defined as it is stated; it is learning acquired through observation. Children experience a lot of observational learning. A mother who has two children might experience their youngest child saying no to the broccoli on their plate because their older sibling says no. This is an example of observational learning.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/133839)Ugo Onuorah (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/133839) Wednesday

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Hello Class and Professor,

 

For this week’s discussion I chose option 2: Memory is a complex concept, why can we remember every

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word to a song we heard 10 years ago, but can’t remember why we walked into the kitchen less than 5 minutes ago? Why do we forget certain information, but remember others? Briefly describe a recent situation in which you forgot something important, referencing one of the theories of forgetting. What techniques could you have used to avoid forgetting this information?

 

Memory can be referred to as the processes in which we acquire, store and retrieve information and experiences. The three major processes of memory are encoding, storage and retrieval (Feldman, 2018). The simple reason why we can remember something or an event from many years ago but forget something very recent is because we were able to successfully retrieve the information and experience stored in our brains of the event or thing from many years ago, where as we fail to complete the same processes for the more recent thing or event. We can misremember or fail to remember something because the material wasn’t properly encoded or when stored, wasn’t properly maintained (Feldman, 2018). Just because we can’t recall something doesn’t mean we weren’t able to before. Some memories are brief and some last much longer. This is because we have different memory storage systems: sensory memory, short-term memory and long- term memory (Feldman, 2018). Brief memories of short-term memory can become longer memories of long- term memory depending on the kind and amount of rehearsal performed in remembering it (Feldman, 2018). So, a more in-depth reason for why we remember certain things longer than others is that some of our memories are short term and others succeeded into becoming long term, and what determines how information becomes part of either system depends on the rehearsals we performed. That’s why it’s more likely you remember a song years ago and for longer duration because of the amount of rehearsals put into singing and remembering the song over a period of time as opposed to carrying out an immediate task that we wouldn’t see the need to put the same amount of dedication and rehearsals into remembering long term.

 

While failure to properly encode information can be a reason that we don’t remember information, there are other processes that account for why we can’t later remember information that was encoded at some point of time. These processes are decay, interference and cue-dependent forgetting (Feldman, 2018). Each provide more reasoning of why we forget things but don’t serve as explanations alone. Something I forget to do is take my supplements every day. The process that can explain why I forget to do so most closely is cue- dependent forgetting, which occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle information located in memory (Feldman, 2018). My cues are when I eat a meal and I have an irregular eating schedule that is responsible. When I eat at regular times is when I tend not to forget to take the supplements. Some techniques I can use to avoid forgetting to do my task is to write down the task and my cues relevant to it and set reminders (Conlon, n.d.). Thankfully the solution to my problem is on the simple side and will allow me to have a better eating schedule so that I don’t forget to take my supplements.

 

References

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

Conlon, C. (n.d.). How to Not Forget Things Easily with These 5 Simple Ways. Retrieved from https://www.lifehack.org/articles/productivity/5-ways-never-forget-anything-again.html (https://www.lifehack.org/articles/productivity/5-ways-never-forget-anything-again.html)

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/143765)Heriberto Ortiz-Nunez (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/143765) Wednesday

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Hello Class,

Option 1: What does it mean when you have learned something? Identify and describe an example of something you have learned recently using either the principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning or observational learning/social-cognitive learning. Ensure that you describe your example using the appropriate terminology associated with each learning theory.

At work I observed and learned new efficient methods that made a task quicker while still maintaining quality. Firstly, I watched my partner perform the task, while explaining each given step. Secondly, without assistance I replicated my partner’s instructions. Despite not performing accurately the first time, through repetition I accomplished the goal. As the observer, my previous actions were modeled by the actions of another. All the steps are stored in my memory for future use.

 

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/69954)Renee Owens (Instructor) Yesterday

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Hello Heriberto,

Thank you for discussing learning! It sounds like this is an example of observational learning. Some research suggests that observational learning also may occur on a neurological level. What role do mirror neurons play in observational learning?

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/143197)Deisy Nazario (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/143197) Yesterday

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Option 2

Dr. Owens and classmates,

In this week’s lesson, Feldman (2018) discusses and defines memory as the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information (p. 202). This past weekend I attended a small graduation surprise party for my sister-in-law. As we started karaoke singing, I asked the DJ to play a Spanish song that I listened to growing up. As soon as I heard the music, I suddenly remembered every word to that song clearly and sang along to it! I must have been six years old when I learned the song. Why do I remember songs but forget important information such as the specific components of blood when learned two weeks ago? What must happen for us to recall and store memories involves the three-system theory. “Human memory consists of three stores. Sensory memory, also called iconic memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory” (Tripathy & Ogmen, 2018, para. 1). According to Feldman (2018), sensory memory lasts an instant; short-term holds information for 15-25 seconds and stores it according to its meaning; long-term memory may be difficult to retrieve, but the information is stored permanently. Frequently our memory fails; this may be due to not using the data, the disruption of information, or a lack of sufficient cues to help recall the information. In my case, I believe that the theory of interference can help explain why I may not clearly remember the specific components of blood. Interference is when “information stored in memory disrupts the recall of other information stored in memory” (Feldman, 2018, p. 227). I am processing a lot of information when it comes to learning about three different courses at once. When learning about the components of blood, my brain was definitely multitasking and attempting to learn the material from other classes. Therefore, the learning of blood components was disrupted by learning new things, causing the older material learned to get replaced. I can improve and help reduce interference in my memory by trying to focus on each course individually. Although it may be difficult, I can focus on one class a day, take breaks in between study sessions, and by all means rehearse the information!

Sincerely, Deisy Nazario

References

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

Tripathy, S., Ogmen, H. (2018). Sensory memory is allocated exclusively to the current event-segment. Front. Psychol. 9, 1435 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01435 (https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01435)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/69954)Renee Owens (Instructor) Yesterday

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Hi Deisy,

Thank you for discussing memory! Interference is one of the major reasons why we forget information. Do you think it was proactive or retroactive interference that caused you to forget the different components of blood?

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/144401)Trisha DelEon (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/144401) Yesterday

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Hello class,

For this week’s discussion I decided to choose Option 2.

 

The reason we can remember certain things and not others is because of the way our brain wants to process and save memory in our memory storage. According to Feldman, memory is the way we encode, store, and retrieve information so our failure to recall a memory depends on our inability to retrieve information. (Feldman, R. S. (2018)). There are two types of memory that are retrieved differently. We have short term memory which requires repetitive rehearsal of something and will be kept in our memory storage if there is a meaning behind it. Then there is the long term memory which requires more needs to be elaborated more and is harder to retrieve. Any memory we have could be put in any of these two compartments and is why our memory is received differently.

Last week I was looking through my wallet and I saw my credit card missing and I was going crazy looking for it. I always take it out and put it right back in my wallet whenever I use it and my brain could not process where I could have left it. All I could remember was that I used it when I went to get ice cream with my friend Jose the night before but I don’t remember leaving it in his car or dropping. Then the next day Jose texted me saying that I left my credit card in his cup holder which I don’t recall at all. I feel that this had to do with my short term memory and the memory only lasted in my brain for a couple seconds and I was very distracted with our conversation that I forgot about my card.

Some techniques I could use to improve this memory is by putting my credit card in my wallet more often and repeating the movement so it can be effortless for me. Short term memory can be retrieved if done reparative and with a meaning so I have to think about how important that credit card is and if I would’ve lost it somewhere else then I could lose all the money I work hard for.

 

References

 

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

 

McLeod, S. (2013). Stages of Memory. SimplyPsychology. Retrieved from: https://www.simplypsychology.org/memory.html (https://www.simplypsychology.org/memory.html)

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-Trisha DeLeon

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/153599)Kassandra Swygard (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/153599) Yesterday

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Option 2

I have had this happen to me quiet a few times I can remember old songs and I can think of something that I wanted to look up and then another idea will pop into my head and I will forget what I originally wanted to look up. The reason for your memory failure is that you probably never encoded the information into long-term memory initially. Obviously, if information was not placed in memory to start with, there is no way the information can be recalled (Feldman, 2018). A recent time that I had this to me was last week I was talking with my mother and I had thought of something to tell her but she told me something first and once she was done I completely forgot what I wanted to tell her. The trace decay theory focuses on time and the limited duration of short term memory. This theory suggests short term memory can only hold information for between 15 and 30 seconds unless it is rehearsed. After this time the information / trace decays and fades away (McLeod, 2008). Something I could have practiced to remember the information I wanted to tell her would be rehearsal and repeat the information in my head before she started talking to me so I wouldn’t have forgotten it.

 

McLeod, S. (2008). Simply Psychology. Retrieved from Forgetting: https://www.simplypsychology.org/forgetting.html

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/138481)Amber Garay (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/138481) Yesterday

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Hello Professor and Class,

Option. 2

Complex memory is the working memory that the system is temporarily storing your memory and managing the information required to carry out complex but cognitive tasks such as learning, reasoning, and comprehension stated from our psychology book. (Feldman, 2018) And the anatomy book states that

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memory itself “Memory is the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information.” (Tortora, Derrickson, 2016 p 571)Two different books correlate memory as a conscious part of our day to day functions in memory weather we are learning, using the reasoning for our day to day decisions and then there is the part of our brain that stores what you learn and there is a section where it goes and dumps it cause we don’t use it. We tend to forget cause we don’t use that on a day to day basis. Each section is an area that it goes to store or to have you forget or the other section where it goes in the short and long term retrieval sections. Really our brains are complex in general and memory falls in that category as well but I honestly can remember things I did 10 years ago such as a family moment along with what we wore and what the conversations were at that time however I do find myself often forgetful to remembering tasks that I need to do for work or my personal life with my kids. Honestly at work, I can remember a patient’s name and medication and what the doctor states as a suggestion but I can not remember the person’s face until I see them. That happens quite often but a lot of this comes from my long term retrieval portion from implicit or explicit portions of my brain that are derived from episodic and procedural memory. There are several techniques that I could use to help me avoid forgetting one is what we talked about last week is sleep and is so helpful, yet very important. The other thing is the limbic system and hippocampus and it plays an important role in learning and memory if we doing key things every day to help remember. Like most people who have Alzheimer’s they have or do certain things to help keep the brain from forgetting, like croswords puzzles and other things games to help exercise the brain along with regular exercise that helps the brain be cleared to help learn and recall important information. So again exercise, sleep, and memory games are helpful to retrieve the information and help the brain with memory.

Resources

Tortora, G. J., & Derrickson, B. (2016). Principles of anatomy & physiology (15th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology. Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/135846)Sukhleen Dhillon (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/135846) Yesterday

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Hello class,

For this week’s discussion post, I choose to answer Option 1 (What does it mean when you have learned something? Identify and describe an example of something you have learned recently using either the principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, or observational learning/social-cognitive learning. Ensure that you describe your example using the appropriate terminology associated with each learning theory.)

Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience (Feldman, 2016, p.169). Learning as a moderately lasting alter in behavior as a result of involvement. It permits a living being to adjust to its environment. Classical conditioning is a procedure by which we figure out how to relate

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occasions or improvements, that every now and again happen together; thus, we figure out how to envision occasions. As per the standards of old-style approving, learning happens when an affiliation is framed between a formerly unbiased improvement and a normally happening upgrade. Classic conditioning is valuable in a transformative sense since it’s helped us make desires to plan for future occasions. One behavior that I noticed that I have adapted is getting nauseous or queasy to the sight or smell of a specific food (like sea-food) which has had caused my stomach to upset in the past.

 

REFERENCES:

Cherry, K. (2019, October 7). How Learning Theories in Psychology Compare. Retrieved May 21, 2020, from https://www.verywellmind.com/learning-theories-in-psychology-an-overview-2795082 (https://www.verywellmind.com/learning-theories-in-psychology-an-overview-2795082)

Feldman, R. (2019). Understanding Psychology. (14 edition). New York, NY. McGraw-Hill Education.th

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/141636)Chastity O’Brien (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/141636) Yesterday

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OPTION 1

To me learning is the act of obtaining information and applying it when desired. I recently was in the car listening to my favorite rap by Tech N9ne and Flatbush Zombies, who could ask for more? Well as the song comes on I start rapping the lyrics. I rapped them in time and right the words this should be shocking because the speed and preciseness of both Tech and Flatbush is difficult for anyone to master and the song has only been out for about 45 days.

This feat amazed my husband and me. I was wondering when exactly I learned to rap. I asked my Uncle if I always picked up things quickly, he said,” Rhythm has always been in your blood, you always danced and sang different than what we brought you up with.” I attributed this statement to classical conditioning; I just did it, no guidance, no reinforcers or social ques; moving is what I did when music I liked came on and I still dance and sing everywhere and anyplace I hear music.

Then I started to wonder how I started rapping, no one in my family ever even listened to rap. I phoned a friend to ask what she recalled about my musical preferences. She said” You started listening to the Beastie Boys in the 80’s and performed anytime they were on.” This went along with my cognitive/social learning. I mimicked what I saw and basically did it until someone told me where, when or how I was doing it wasn’t appropriate.

So I got the whole classic conditioning thing, some people are just born with rhythm; I understood how my cognitive and social learning came into play, with mimicking groups and dance moves but how did I learn to perfect it? The definition of Operant conditioning basically answered this to complete this whole wondrous

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act. The book says that operant conditioning is learning done through consequence( Feldman, 2019) If I try a dance move and get hurt then I’ll no better, if I sing off key than you make your ears and throat hurt or my favorite the consequence of rapping badly; wrong timing and wrong wording is basically committing verbal homicide and depending whose watching it could be social and verbal suicide.

Feldman, R. S. (2018). Understanding psychology (14th ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.

Tech N9ne feat Flatbush Zombies (2020) Enterfear; Look What I Did.

http://music.youtube.com/watch?v=RQQgEciggI&feature=share

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149059)Deanna Santiago (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/63025/users/149059) 4:40pm

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Option 1

What does it mean when you have learned something? Identify and describe an example of something you have learned recently using either the principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning or observational learning/social-cognitive learning. Ensure that you describe your example using the appropriate terminology associated with each learning theory.

To have learned something means to understand and retain the information that was taught. Learning causes a change in behavior or thinking by using a lesson or experience. I recently have learned about the heart including it’s anatomy, functions, and how it works. To learn this, I used the principle of operant conditioning. According to McLeod (2018), “Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior.” By studying and working on my assignments, I am rewarded with positive grades. This in result wants me to continue to study and work hard on my assignments to continue achieving good grades as my reward. By not studying and not doing my assignments, I would be punished with bad grades or failing grades.

 

Reference

McLeod, S. A. (2018, January, 21). Skinner – operant conditioning. Simply Psychology. https://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html

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