Question Description

Peer response needed for this discussion post 100-150 with a reference. EXAMPLE Hello Elena,

Great post and very informative. To add to your posting, postpartum maternal health care is a neglected aspect of women’s health care. There are many missed opportunities for enhancing the health care of postpartum women occur in the scope of routine postpartum care. Therefore,collecting national data on postpartum maternal morbidity, reformingpostpartum care policies, providing holistic and flexible maternalhealth care, encouraging family support and involvement in supportgroups, and initiating educational programs are recommended. Once again,great topic especially since it’s not a common topic of research.

  • Albers L. L. Health problems after childbirth. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2000;45:55–57.


Experimental Research

Decisions made by households regarding antenatal and postnatal care affect health outcomes in pregnant women and nursing mothers. The SMART Initiatives Program in Egypt strives to promote efficient household decision-making encouraging healthy behaviors during community activities, home visits, and group sessions with women and their families. The study of Brasington, Abdelmegeid, Dwivedi, Kols, Kim, Khadka, and Gibson (2016) evaluated the program by comparing women’s knowledge and behaviors related to prenatal and postnatal care before and after exposure to SMART interventions and in the comparison group. The researchers suggest that there is a significant dose-response correlation between exposure to SMART interventions and behavioral indicators in Egypt. The findings of the study demonstrate the ability community organizations to promote knowledge and healthy behaviors among women.

The program evaluation employed a quantitative correlational quasi-experimental nonequivalent group design. Households surveys have been carried out before and after the intervention to test both intervention and comparison areas. Six Egypt’s governorates in Upper and Lower Egypt demonstrating poor health indicators were selected to implement the SMART intervention. In each governorate, similar in demographic characteristics districts were assigned to intervention or comparison group.

The researchers used a multi-stage cluster sampling methods to select survey respondents. Thirty clusters (villages) were selected within four interventional and comparison strata. Fifty-three households were identified withing each cluster with a mother who had a child under age of two. The intervention of the study, a SMART program, included a set of health activities implemented through local health services. Intervention activities (independent variables) covered health promotion among women through home visits and group counseling, enabling of the supportive home environment, and reinforcement of program message by local healthcare providers.

The researchers, using the 2008 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) questionnaire, collected data in a few categories. Knowledge questions included danger signs during pregnancy and post-delivery and side effects of contraception. Behavior questions incorporated the antenatal care visits, delivery settings, and skilled birth assistance. Mothers were also asked about frequency of SMART home visits, participation in group sessions, and involvement of their husband in SMART activities. Women health knowledge and behaviors in this study presented dependent variables. The authors analyzed a dose-response relationship between the intensity of the program and changes in health practices and knowledge for described interventions. Whereas only a half of the behavioral interventions demonstrated gain in the interventional group, gains in knowledge in the interventional areas were up to three times larger that in the comparison group.

The authors of the study concluded that SMART program in Egypt offers an efficient way to diffuse information, shift behavioral norms, and promote health. The study results imply that investment in community health services can bring effective counseling to women, increase health knowledge, and promote health behaviors leading to improved health outcomes.