Order 1113621: Leaders Transfer Training

Order 1113621: Leaders Transfer Training

  • Type of paperDissertation
  • SubjectManagement
  • Number of pages22
  • Format of citationAPA
  • Number of cited resources0
  • Type of serviceWriting

Note from committee member On the theoretical framework of your dissertation , I would recommend adding Holland′s theory to cover your discussion on the big five personality dimensions . You will have three theories : Expectancy , Organizational , and Holland.

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Exploring Supervisor and Peer Support on US Army Junior Leader’s Transfer of Training

William R Green

Walden University
















Exploring Supervisor and Peer Support on US Army Junior Leader’s Transfer of Training























Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study

The need for competence and quality of services in organizations has led to the investment on human resource activities (Pasban & Nojedeh, 2016). Most firms have now realized that for them to improve the performance of their employees then they have to invest in training activities ( Elnaga & Imran, 2013). This study may increase the understanding of how supervisor and peer behaviors are effective in using or supporting newly learned knowledge and skills. Training programs have social implications such as improved work quality, higher productivity, fewer work-related errors, higher staff motivation as well as increased employee commitment.

A study of how peer and supervisor behavior facilitate the transfer of training may be significant for at least two reasons. First, the Army budget has experienced substantial reductions, and efficiency has become more important (Crowley, Shanley, Rothenberg, & Sollinger, 2013). Soldiers, leaders, and units must remain proficient, even with resource constraints and an increasing range of tasks and skills. Training has been a fundamental concern in the organizational context, and Army leadership relies on training strategies, technology, and development efforts to prepare soldiers, leaders, and units (Grossman & Salas, 2011). Therefore, deepening knowledge of how to improve transfer of training may help overcome increasing budget constraints.

This paper will explore the supervisor and peer support on the US army junior leader’s transfer of training. To address this gap the approach will be qualitative. Assessment of the problem statement will be used in conjunction with interviews to develop an understanding of the relevance of training transfer and program s for formulating problem statement. This study will further examine the extent to which supervisor and peer support behaviors can foster or hinder transfer of training within the military context (U.S. Department of Army, 2011; U.S. Department of Army, 2012). McDonald (2014) defined the transfer of training as an ongoing application of knowledge, skills, and abilities gained through professional development programs in the workplace. Bhatti and Hoe (2012) indicated that training transfer is affected largely by two factors namely peer support and supervisor support.

The major sections of the chapter one include : The back ground of the study , statement of the problem , purpose …….Chapter 1 serves as a guide to an understanding of the background, problem, purpose, theoretical foundations, nature, definitions, assumptions, scope, significance, delimitations, and limitations of the study. Within each of these main topic areas, there is a brief discussion of subtopics of importance related to the area of research. This first chapter includes the rationale and significance for exploring supervisor and peer support on U.S. Army leaders’ transfer of training.

Background of the Study

Training transfer not only describes learning process parameters, but helps in comprehending the dynamics, which define the process of learning as well as the required performance outcomes (Tharanganie, 2013). Training transfer also encompasses the knowledge of the way learning functions in an individual (Crowley, Shanley, Rothenberg, &Sollinger, 2013), and contributing human actors, for instance, cognitive abilities and intrinsic motivators. Similarly, external influences, for instance, organizational culture (Grossman & Salas, 2011) alongside external motivators, which are specifically linked to the performance of employees, for instance, peer and supervisor assistance should be taken into consideration. Transfer is an indication of the difficulty linked to the organization, the training event, the individual trainee, and the learning process. Because of this, training transfer should be viewed thoroughly to incorporate the learning process as well as the associated variables, which negatively and positively influence the process and affect the ability of the individual to transfer. Transfer and training does not exist within the isolated classroom setting but encompasses factors linked to the organization, the training practice along with the individual trainee. This research will summarize the current knowledge in the area of training transfer, identify any strengths and weaknesses in previous work and thus eliminate the potential weaknesses, while at the same time bringing to the fore the potential strengths, for contribution to further studies.

Few studies have directly set out to understand the perceptions of supervisor and peer support behaviors in relation to the transfer of training and has resulted in nonexistence of discrimination in literature. Further limitation is that research is predominantly quantitative and does provide enrich detail to understand the behaviors that fosters or hinders transfer of learning. There is not enough research on organizational support and does not offer adequate detail to understand the behaviors foster or hinders perceive peer and supervisor support for employee learning. Some of the studies (Aguinis and Kraiger, 2009; Kotter, 2001; Lancaster et al., 2013; Martin, 2010; Popper and Lipshitz, 2000; Schmitt et al., 2011) reviewed were qualitative. The purpose of this study is to extend the literature by exploring and describing the peer and supervisor support that Army leaders perceived as helpful to support their learning.

Describe a gap in knowledge in the discipline that the study will address and end this ection on why the study is needed .

Problem Statement

The effectiveness of training transfers depends on whether the ultimate goal of learning specific skills is met, and the skills are transferred to the work environment (Riley, Hatfield, Freeman, Fallesen, & Gunther, 2015). Attitudes regarding the utility of Army courses and schools, and the perceived level of use or support from supervisors and peers, affect how well leaders transfer what they have gained from courses to their work environment. The trainees should be able to transfer and apply their learned skills to the actual work environment if there is low training transfer. Several studies have showed the significance of supervisor support and peer support in training transfers (Govaerts, Kyndt, & Dochy, 2017). Lack of such support negatively affects the staff motivation, reducing their commitment to work and having a negative impact on the quality of service provided.

The General Problem is that most army leaders do not understand and know how to assess the effectiveness of training transfers from the trainee’s perspective : have the objectives of learning specific skills been met and have these skills been successfully transferred in the work place.

The specific research problem (this is fine) of this qualitative study is that the behaviors that foster or hinder transfer of training to the workplace at the Army are not well known and understood , and, consequently, the Army cannot fully address an important factor of transfer of training. A study on this gap may include useful information for improving the current rate of the application of training.

Purpose of Study

The purpose of this qualitative case study is to conduct a scholarly research to remedy the short fall regarding the perceptions of Army leaders about supervisor and peer support behaviors in relation to the transfer of training, including the gap in the knowledge and understanding on the topic . The intent of the study is to determine what supervisor and peer behaviors can foster or hinder transfer of training within the Army context. McDonald (2014) defined the transfer of training as an ongoing application of knowledge, skills, and abilities gained through professional development programs in the workplace. Bhatti and Hoe (2012) indicated that supervisor support and peer support are the two most influential factors affecting the transfer of training. Therefore, this study may include new insights into this pivotal area of military institutions.

Research Questions

1. How does the supervisor support and peer support on the US army junior leaders affect transfer of training?

2. What are the social implications of transfer of training for US army junior leaders?

3- How do army leaders currently assess and measure the training transfer outcomes/ results on their trainees.



Conceptual Framework

Expectancy theory is a process motivation theory based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcomes . I will work hard knowing that at the end of the day I will receive a check .. I will invest my time in studying for my classes knowing that I will get good grades from my efforts ….

The practical implications of this theory : To increase the belief that employees are capable of performing the job successfully , managers must provide required training and clarify job requirements; provide counseling and coaching to employees who lack self –confidence , measure job performance accurately .

Please ensure you include the roles of Army leaders and managers with respect to this theory

The conceptual framework of this qualitative case study included transfer of expectancy theory. According to Vroom (1964), the pioneer of the theory of expectancy, individuals would choose basing on the need to minimize pain and increase pleasure. With regard to Vroom’s (1964) theory the instrument of expectancy and valence supports the level of expectancy amongst individuals (Nijman &Gelissen, 2011). Valence refers to the anticipated value or satisfaction an individual considers would be the outcome gained instead of the real value gained from an outcome is the expected (Van de Ven & Sun, 2011). Instrumentality refers to the reward that emanates from attaining the performance objectives (Tharanganie, 2013). Combined, instrumentality and valence generate expectancy that refers to the level that an employee feels that a certain outcome would emerge (Van de Ven& Sun, 2011). Vroom expresses the theory through the formula P=f (FxA), which indicates performance, denoted by ‘P’ constitutes the outcome for ability denoted by ‘A’ and interactional force denoted by ‘F’. Comment by Author: Remove transfer. It should just be Expectancy Theory

The total instrumentality between expectancy and valence refers to force whereas an individual’s potential of performing an activity implies ability (Van de Ven& Sun, 2011). The effort of an individual to transfer is dependent upon combined role perceptions, traits, cognition, and abilities (Van de Ven & Sun, 2011). To sum it up, the theory of expectancy refers to the significance a person attaches upon a learning exercise. The significance relies upon numerous factors associated with ability and personality of the employee and work environment factors. With regard to transfer and training, expectancy theory is considered an individual’s motivational factor (Merriam & Leahy, 2015). For the employer, the theory can be denoted using practical terms that involve combining job performance with reward.

When an employee feels that a real importance originates from taking part in learning sessions and shifting possibility of the presence is improved, ability of converting into strong improvement in individual performance, skill, or knowledge. Similarly, if there is no benefit perceived, then transfer is not likely to take place. In their review, (Merriam & Leahy, 2015) felt it important for using the theory of expectancy for further research on transfer as an aspect of motivation. Afterwards, the suggestion was confirmed within results obtained from studies undertaken by Merriam & Leahy (2015), which consider the theory a transfer predictor.

Image result for training transfer

Near transfer is a replica of the training transfer element’s theory (Yamnill & McLean (2001) which states that in the event that the quantity of transfer between the unfamiliar scenario and the familiar one is determined through the quantity of elements, which the two scenarios share. Simply put, transfer revolves around the common aspects level existing within emerging as well as initial training scenarios. For a transfer to be considered efficient a scenario between the job tasks and learning context should not be general but specific (Holton, 2005). Later, Thorndike introduced the connectedness or belongingness concept to the theory, which discovered that individuals would readily connect when they found out that the both elements are similar (Mourakani et al, 2015). Depending upon the thematic concerns, applying instructional design aspects associated with near transfer would offer an efficient avenue for transfer compared to other forms of transfer.

Organization Support Theory (OST) has attracted significant interest due to the potential significance of perceiving the employee-organization relationships from the perspective of employees, the clear nature of the POS construct, as well as the strong POS associations with attitudinal outcomes, job satisfaction, and influential organizational commitment. Building upon the study of Baldwin and Ford (1988), and reviewing other literature on transfer, some challenges linked to transfers alongside their complexities are placed in 3 groups:

1. The psychological, cognitive, motivational aspects of an individual employee

2. Learning experience content delivery as well as design

3. Working or organization setting coupled with how an organization environment affects a trainee’s motivation and ability to transfer (Holton, 2005).

Nature of the Study

A qualitative case study will serve as the method and design for establishing Army leaders’ perceptions about the supervisor and peer support behaviors that may be helpful or unhelpful in training transfer. Case study research is beneficial in making an effort to attain more insight and a better understanding of a person, group, or situation (Lodico, Spaulding, & Voegtle, 2010). A qualitative case study facilitates exploring a phenomenon within its context using a variety of data sources (Baxter & Jack, 2008). In such a study, researchers can explore an issue not through just one lens, but through a variety of lenses to develop an understanding of multiple facets of the phenomenon.

Qualitative case study will be more suitable than quantitative research because the focus of this study is on perceptions of support behaviors that are helpful and unhelpful in facilitating transfer from the perspective of trainees attempting to transfer knowledge and skills back to the workplace. Thus, researchers can study how to cope with internal psychological processes of recognizing and interpreting sensory and cognitive stimuli in a more comprehensive way using a research design focused on people’s internal mental processes. Other qualitative approaches considered include phenomenology, ethnography, and observational studies, but they were insufficient ways to aggregate the collective knowledge required to describe behaviors to facilitate transfer. Case studies are the preferred research strategy when “how” or “why” questions are posed and when the researcher has little control over events (Yin, 2003).

Participant selection will involve maximum variation sampling. Maximum variation is applicable for this study because the phenomenon is seen and understood among different people, in different settings and at different times. This type of sampling strategy provides the opportunity to take note of any variations that are different or distinctive and to ensure representation of the population. The conceptual framework for this study is transfer of expectancy theory and OST. The focus on these two lenses is how peer and supervisor behavior facilitate the transfer of training (Bhatti & Hoe, 2013). Using case study approach will generate an in-depth, multi-faceted understanding of complex issues in its real-life context.


The key assumption for training transfer is that an individual’s performance improves from properly structured training procedures for employees (Graves, Pleban, Mundell, &Perdomo, 2013). Broad and Newstrom (1992) defined training transfer as an efficient and on-going application, by workers to their occupations, and the skills and knowledge transfer acquired in training towards their occupations. Similarly, Noe and Schmitt (1986) consider training as organized experiences aimed at bringing permanent change within a person’s skills, attitudes, or knowledge. The definition from Baldwin and Ford, and that of Broad and Newsroom portrays transfer as a learning process towards an occupation. The definition of Noe and Schmitt (1986) restricts itself to training; but the concept for transfer of training is implied.


It is assumed that employees learn from the training and transfer what they acquire t increased performance. Training seeks to produce application, which is considered improved employee performance. The Van den Bossche, Segers, & Jansen (2010) study asserted that pre-training motivation investigated contained a key component, the improvement of individual performance. This shift in performance was also assumed to be a major aspect that transfer of training had existed and was aligned with presented definitions. The employee with regard to specific activities, tasks, or jobs transforms the skills, attitudes, and knowledge acquired in training into improved performance (Dermol & Cater, 2013; Govaerts & Dochy, 2014; Blume et al., 2010). From the research, training transfer can be considered a learning application. The efficiency of transfer revolves around the ability of the employee to use knowledge towards increased or improved job-related performance. Although the study undertaken by Chiaburu, van Dam, & Hutchins (2010); Tharanganie (2013); Van den Bossche et al. (2010) examined the significance emanating from supervisor support with regard to learning transfer within a task-based environment, it failed to investigate the effect of supervisor support on learning transfer.

Scope and Delimitation of Studies

The study will focus on the US army junior leaders that are on various trainings and the supervisors. The study participants will be active leaders at the US junior army. All the respondents will have to be actively practicing and not under any form of disciplinary action. The study incorporated a smaller study sample size to minimize on the research related costs. Delimitations of a study are the boundaries and scope that a researcher decides to include or exclude when developing a study.

1. This study will include soldiers who attended and completed an NCO leader development course between 3 and 13 months prior to this study. Soldiers who did attend a leader development course will not participate in interviews

2. The interviews will include only soldiers who consent to participate.

3. The study focuses on the soldier’s experiences and the meaning attached to the perceptions of those experiences.

As a result of the delimitations, the findings of this study may or may not be generalizable to other subpopulations, locations, or time periods.


The major limitation for the study was the constraint of time thus it was not possible to incorporate a larger sample and the constraints of resources. The sample of the study was restricted to the academic classroom context instead of employee setting. While Colquitt and Simmering (1998) recognize the drawback, they believe that the study aspects can be applied to the context of worker training scenario because goal orientation and conscientiousness, which are key individual attributes, can be applied across environments.

Significance of the Study

Training transfers play a significant role in the performance and motivation of employees. The effectiveness of training transfers depend on whether the ultimate goal of learning specific skills is met and the skills are transferred to the work environment. The trainees should be able to transfer and apply their learned skills to the actual work environment if there is low training transfer. Several studies have showed the significance of supervisor support and peer support in training transfers. The studies showed that lack of such support negatively affects the staff motivation, reducing their commitment to work and having a negative impact on the quality of service provided. There lacks empirical evidence in previous surveys of supervisor support and peer support in transfer of training within the US army junior leaders.

Second, this study will involve approaching the problem from a different methodological point of view. While literature includes a number of quantitative investigations, a qualitative approach will give voice to what participants found to assist or hinder in the transfer process (Lancaster & Milia, 2014). By exploring peer and supervisor behavior found to support the transfer process, a more consistent view of their functions on training transfer could emerge. Finally, this study could serve as a guideline to create a supportive work culture that provides employees with the confidence to try new work behaviors and to provide relevant support at the appropriate time to assist in improving the organization performance.

Significance to Practice

It is critical to the success of the Army that soldiers and leaders receive training in knowledge and skills that are transferable to the work environment. Moreover, it is critical that supervisors and peers ensure the effectiveness of professional training programs regarding trainees’ transfer of training. Army leadership tends to be practical about what it expects from training. Training helps to make operations more efficient, effective, and safe. Like other organizations, the Army has an associated goal of investing in the force and its future success (Blume et al., 2010). For this reason, instructors and training administrators want to know whether and in what ways trainees use what they have learned. These stakeholders want to know whether a particular training program has been successful and has had a positive effect on how former trainees can apply their knowledge and skills to perform critical tasks (Ford & Weissbein, 1997).

Significance to Theory

As discussed above, this study will involve an attempt to examine how supervisor and peer behaviors can foster or hinder transfer of training within the Army context. In the transfer of training literature, several studies have shown the significance of peer and supervisor support (Bates, 2001; Bates & Holton, 1999; Holton et al., 1997, 2000; Tracey et al., 1995) and motivation to transfer (Kontoghiorghes, 2001), but no one has attempted to understand the behaviors that support or hinder transfer. This study may demonstrate that Army leaders who perceive positive outcomes associated with support behavior feel inspired to transfer their training in the workplace.

Significance to Social Change

This study has several implications for positive social change. Specifically, the study may contribute to a better understanding of supervisor and peer support behaviors that are effective in training transfer. The successful identification of perceptions that Army leaders have about supervisor and peer support behaviors may lead senior Army leaders to develop countermeasures that will remove or minimize barriers that hinder transfer from occurring. It is also important to identify factors affecting transfer of training to promote the creation of an environment that will produce better returns for investment in training. The findings of this study might be a valuable contribution to understanding the factors that affect transfer in the armed forces. Army leaders could use the knowledge attained to create environments to improve learning transfer. Implications for positive social change include an increase in the transfer of learned knowledge and skills among Army leaders, which may help them to develop impeccable character and professional competence and may contribute to the success of the U.S. Army.

Summary and Transition

Supervisor support and peer support have been showed to affect the transfer of training of employees. The goal orientation of an employee causes a negative influence their perception on work and training (Nijman et al., 2006). Trainee that is objective oriented pursues adjustable responses to different scenarios. Such may encompass mindset adjustments towards finding proper solution (Holton, 2005). Therefore, motivation considers task challenges that cause further development within an individual (Merriam & Leahy, 2015). Notably, individuals who are dependent on performance always opt for adaptive approaches in objective attainment; this may include the strong desires of the trainee to pull out from the task making negative attributes regarding capability. In this regard, it is clear for one to understand why there is a decline in individual desire or significance in achieving objectives that have been set (Dweck & Leggett, 1988). This research will summarize the current knowledge in the area of training transfer, identify any strengths and weaknesses in previous work and thus eliminate the potential weaknesses, while at the same time bringing to the fore the potential strengths, for contribution to further studies.















This chapter will examine or discuss …………….

Restate the problem and the purpose of your study

List the major sections of the chamber

There are two forms of transfer, far and near transfer. In the near form of transfer simulations or events during learning, tend to have a direct link with or are same asjob conditions (Merriam & Leahy, 2015). For instance, employees attending training possess classroom activities, which indicate the situation because of their existence at the occupation. The employees are likely to shift the learned skills to the occupation (Baldwin & Ford, 1988). The similarity that exists between learning and the requirements of the occupation are similar within detail levels, which workers may identify occupation requirements towards the acquired knowledge, and later ought to shift acquired abilities, and knowledge to their occupation for improvement of an individual’s performance (Merriam & Leahy.). Comment by Author: Is this your introduction ?

Far transfer indicates the dissimilar condition level, which exist between simulations and training events, as well as the conditions on the occupation(Baldwin & Ford, 1988; McDonald, 2014; Merriam & Leahy, 2015). In this environment, an employee acquires training within a specific skill, for instance, resource allocation or problem solving and then uses the principles acquired within the classroom on scenarios existing on the occupation. There is significant distance with regard to use of abilities, skills or knowledge to particular job activities when the knowledge is relayed basing on abstraction rules or principles. Afterwards, workers are positioned for translation of the rules or principles into concrete activities.

A direct similarity, which the employee can apply as a cognitive reference point for transfer into a specified setting does not exist. Therefore, the employee should undertake a higher generalization level of training towards performance at the workplace (Sofo, 2007). Principles theory of Goldstein and Ford (2002) is consistent with the concept of far transfer. This theory revolves around generalizing common skills across environments. The emphasis entails using particular principles in the manner in which they relate with a concept or task regardless of the transfer environment as long as the person can use the underlying rules within different environments (Sofo, 2007).

Although literature considers both forms of transfer (far/near) critical, they are most notable (McDonald 2014; Yamnill & McLean 2001; Pineda-Herrero, et al., 2014; Merriam &Leahy, 2015). Other kinds of transfer are created in training design of transfer and instruction. Merriam and Leahy (2015) offer general views regarding different transfer types, as illustrated below (table 2). For instance, Yamnill & McLean (2001) identified two uniquely correlated forms of transfer namely high and low road.

Low road form of transfer refers to transfer processes, which exist when the condition of stimulus within a previous learning context and transfer context are similar of causing well-developed semi-automatic feedbacks. Low road transfer shares a similarity with near transfer and is used for describing an individual’s ability of adapting to a new setting using past knowledge because of the similarity characterizing the two settings. High road transfer describes significant mental efforts. During such scenario, a person tries creating schemas involving two learning contexts, which do not contain noticeable similarities (Yamnill & McLean, 2001). Within such context, training has a close relation with far transfer because a person will consider general concept or principle constructs and use them on several but different settings (Tharanganie, 2013). This intentional search for links requires a cognition level, which does not respond intuitively as low road form of transfer.

Table 2.Types of Transfer

Type of transfer Explanation
Positive transfers Levels to which trainees have learned attitudes and knowledge that they may use efficiently within work practice. Previously acquired attitudes and knowledge enhance the acquisition of attitudes and knowledge.
Negative transfers The level where occurrence of an undesired outcome after it has followed a course exists. Previously acquired attitudes and knowledge hamper the acquisition of new attitudes and knowledge.
Far Transfers Transfer whereby first training activities as well as the subsequent learning tasks differ significantly.
Near Transfers Transfer when the first learning activities as well as the subsequent learning tasks differ slightly.
Low road transfers Transfers that revolve around varied as well as intensive learning that exist by automatically applying acquired skills and knowledge within emerging contexts.
High road transfers Transfers that revolve around conscious abstracts of previously learned skills from a single context towards another.
General transfers The trainee learned some practical skills and techniques that he/she may useon activities instead of initial training activities.



Specific transfers The training activity appears very specific to an extent that transfer may not occur on other activities.


Horizontal transfer Transferring from an activity and joining another


Vertical transfers  

Transfer in given activities through increasing knowledge



As a person learns within the work environment, all factors found in transfer combine to form forces, which generate the transfer mechanism for all individuals. While the real format for transfer as indicated by Merriam and Leahy (2015) have been investigated using empirical research (Macdonald, 2014), a raging debate still exists regarding how the transfer mechanism interact within the transfer and learning process, as well as the level of its existence (Barnard, et al. 2001;Mancy,n.d.). This notion is understandable considering that for effective behavioral learning to occur, the cognitive ability for learning should be present within the person (Barnard et al., 2001).

The element of cognitive ability with respect to motivation to learning transfer is indicated using a study of employee workplace learning skills as well as transfer. Workplace literacy skills are required for efficient employment (Graves et al., 2013). Nijman et al., (2006) examined occupation-based conditions and learning skills amongst employees in a Department of Transportation (DoT) at a state level in southern US. The study sample comprised 1079 DoT employees with 79 mechanics, 481 technical supervisors, and 178 foremen and investigated job-related workplace literacy skills and 319 Mobile Equipment Operators.

Literature search strategy

The literature search will rely relied on books, journals and articles that will be related ..were related to transfer of training vis-à-vis supervisor support and peer support. The literature search was also based on the qualitative and quantitative data collection process. The most significant literature search strategy for this research was a qualitative and quantitative survey. During this training process, two surveys were administered to the students. At the middle stage of the learning process, the students received the first study whereas at the closure of the training another study was given. This study had compiled portions of studies conducted previously in different areas such as goal orientation, conscientiousness, valence, expectancy, and learning motivation. Several terms including transfer, transfer training, learning transfer, supervisor and peer support, and peer behavior were used iteratively for identification of germane scholarship from leadership training and transfer databases; Additionally, literature searches were undertaken in Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) published reports, journal articles, reports and workbooks; peer and supervisor leadership handbooks were also used. In cases where there was scant current research and few theses, the investigator sought help from the US Army Department. Comment by Author: Please use future tense . This is a proposal . You have not conducted the actual research Comment by Author: So you’ve also conducted your study

The feedback regarding how students performed was given after the students sat two examinations at the middle course and upon completion. Students were not forced to complete the surveys; however, completing exams was mandatory. The correlations of zero orders, standard deviations, and averages for the entire variables were ascertained. Afterwards, Colquitt and Simmering (1998) placed the students in groups of negative and positive. In this classification, negativity was denoted by low levels of conscientiousness and learning, whereas positivity was represented by significant levels of conscientiousness and learning. Both categories used the size of binomial effects to express the relationship that exists between motivation towards learning and the patterns. In contrast, the positive category had 37% of the students, and this group was motivated prior to getting their feedback whereas those motivated after feedback constituted about 39% unlike learners in the negative category.

Additionally, students in the positive pattern group were 29% likely to score good marks in the initial test and 27% likely to score better grades in the second test. It emerged that Conscientiousness and learning orientation were related positively with learning motivation.During the process of learning, students with conscientiousness and learning orientation personality variables also exhibited greater levels of motivation.Moreover, Colquitt and Simmering (1988) multiplying the framework of valence and expectancy within a theoretical perspective described how conscientiousness and motivation to learn are mediated partly by expectancy and valence. Seemingly, persevering, self-disciplined, and reliable people had a higher likelihood of perceiving the correlation that characterizes performance and effort, and this caused them to value greater levels of performance (Colquitt & Simmering, 1998). Similarly, it was found that learning orientation had a positive correlation with learning motivation with greater levels of valence, expectancy, and learning orientation being exhibited by individuals.

However, it is worth noting that the study is characterized by drawbacks. The sample of the study was restricted to the academic classroom context instead of employee setting. While Colquitt and Simmering (1998) recognize the drawback, they believe that the study aspects can be applied to the context of worker training scenario because goal orientation and conscientiousness, which are key individual attributes, can be applied across environments. However, this should be ascertained using further research prior to sustaining a generalization. While analyzing the study, one can find a causal connection that the motivation level of an individual revolves around the values at its disposal as stipulated by the theory of expectancy (Vroom, 1964). The expression of motivation and value takes place through transfer and learning activity. When trainees put the level of valence on learning, then a reasonable link could be established between motivation level and the value. For instance, when a trainee feels there is significant importance in the training course, he or she would display considerable levels of learning motivation as well as transfer learning, which will be depicted with a certain performance improvement level. Such performance improvement satisfies valence amongst employees.

Theoretical foundation Please discuss the two theories that represent the conceptual framework of your study : Expectancy theory and ….. Justify from the literature the rationale for selection of the these theories .

You probably need to reframe and or rename this section

Personality traits may affect the motivation of an individual to transfer and learn (Tharanganie, 2013). Bates and Holton (2004), building upon the assertion of Barnard (2005) assertion that attributes associated with personality may influence performance as well as transfer at the workplace, suggests that 5attributes of personality –Five Factor Model (FFM) (Riley et al., 2011) are critical. The FFM (table 3) comprises conscientiousness, compatibility, openness towards experiences, extraversion, and emotional strength (negative pole: neuroticism). Of the five traits, the three stability-linked attributes namely conscientiousness, open towards new experiences alongside emotional stability were found to contain evidence that is supportive of positive transfer (Holton, 2005). For instance, traits linked to conscientiousness for instance, dependability, commitment towards higher performance standards and an effort to succeed. Individuals having a higher conscientiousness level post better performance in training activities and tend to have stronger training results compared to those without high conscientiousness levels (Holton, 2005). Comment by Author: This has nothing to do with Expectancy Theory

Table 3: Description of Traits in the 5-Factor Model Comment by Author: Is this your third theory ?

Name of trait Traits associated
Openness Being artistically sensitive, intelligent, broad-minded, original, curious, cultured, and



Conscientiousness Being persevering, achievement-oriented, hardworking, organized, responsible, thorough, and careful
Agreeableness Being tolerant, softhearted, remorseful, social, responsible, and respectful
Neuroticism A feeling of insecurity, emotional, embarrassment, stress, and anxiety
Extraversion Being artistically sensitive, intelligent,broad-minded, original, curious, cultured, and


Being active, talkative, assertive, gregarious and sociable


Colquitt and Simmering (1998) investigated goal orientation and conscientiousness with regard to motivation to determine the way such traits affect a trainee in the entire training process, particularly when trainees encounter challenges in the initial stages. The two describe objective orientation as: -a “strong variable with two forms: (a) a literacy orientation whereby growing competency through development of new skills is the main idea and (b) orientation linked to performance whereby practicing competence through fulfillment of the standards considered normative is essential. The survey was held for 6 weeks of the training session. The reason behind such setting entailed providing the researchers with opportunities via a conclusive longitudinal procedure compared to those used in the past research. All trainees were given a feedback that is related to performance. The feedbacks were returned at the commencement and during the learning process.

The researchers applied the theory of expectancy advanced by Vroom (1964) and which states that trainees would be highly motivated to learn because:(a) they identify a correlation between expectancy and the impetus they put in, and (b) they see valence in the achieved outcomes. Through Vroom’s model, goal orientation alongside conscientiousness is assumed to be related positively at the time of feedback as dictated by expectancy and value. The study undertaken by Simmering and Colquitt (1998) had 100 university students taking part in a training course in management for 6 weeks. The process of collecting data was undertaken in turns for precision. The facilitators experimented the model using trainees in a classroom setting. The facilitator controlled the processes of accessing and collecting data and the contents were not shared with those being trained. The objective of performance for all trainees depended on the existing average score obtained after 7 days in class and the set grade was about 0.26 points. All trainees were given a statement detailing goal performance at the commencement of another lesson. Notably, this study omitted 9 students whose average score was above 3.75; this is because an increase of 0.26 is likely to increase the average score to more than 5.0.

Merriam and Leahy (2015) undertook an analysis for studies conducted in the United States for determining whether job performance can be predicted accurately using the 5-factor model. More than thirty-five studies from a group with 100 studies were identified. Studies specifically addressing business enterprises in the US with most respondents drawn from the US took part in the study. Countries located in Europe and which yielded considerable relationships were not analyzed. The chosen studies did not feature in earlier meta-analyses during the study. The investigator sought to locate all unpublished and published studies, which produced relational data or statistics for calculating relational statistics. The process of analysis was undertaken by two investigators, the author as well as an experienced psychology investigator. Using the process of classification in an earlier analysis of researches undertaken in Europe and the Asia, Nijman et al., (2006) autonomously categorized all chosen studies. After the process was completed, all investigators examined various drawbacks until there was a consensus.

Theoretical framework Nothing below has anything to do with your theoretical frame work ( Expectancy theory and Organizational theory )

The fact that being open is crucial role in transferring the acquired skills to the job, the literature does not provide a clear picture. A number of arguments are puzzled with whether openness could provide sufficient motivational desires (Herold et al 2002). When the trainee is open to change as his or her own behavior, it is more obvious that the openness level amongst trainees towards learning and the way it can be transferred could be approached with high demand. Conversely, a trainee who has the lower openness levels towards learning and how skills are transferred is demotivated. Nevertheless, according to the argument that believes that transfer could be a comprehensive process that must involve the following; the training event, the trainee, and the work surrounding. Therefore, it is reasonable concluding that being open plays a critical role in the way skills and knowledge are transferred. However, openness does not assure the trainee that transfer must happen.

The shortcomings associated with FFM in overall terms and openness in particular cannot be reflected. The strengths of personality and its role in transfer are very significant with regard to the literature perspective (Van Den Bossche et al., 2010). Personality should be used in the process of transferring knowledge because of its vital nature when determining the trainees’ traits and the social interaction (Holton, 2005). Additionally, personality should be used within the process of transferring what has been acquired in training to the job as indicated in previous studies (Bossche et al., 2010; Holton, 2005). It is worth to note, the personality among individual differ on its impact on the learning and transfer. Nevertheless, personality is considered a very crucial factor since it also helps to ascertain the likelihood of transfer of the traits among the trainees’ traits in any given study (Holton,2005; Merriam & Leahy, 2010). Therefore, there are evidences for one to understand the fact that variables present within trainees present a huge effect in processes associated with transferring acquired skills to the workplace. More often, those being trained and possess positive goals have a likelihood of transferring skills from training set up to employment environment. However, employees without motivation are likely to be reluctant towards the learning transfer process.

2.8.3 Goal Orientation

Goal orientation refers to the process aimed at demonstrating or developing someone’s abilities (Holton, 2005). Seemingly, orientation of objectives is associated with children learning studies especially the mental disabled ones. Dweck and Leggett (1988), undertook additional research about personal attributes and motivating factors amongst young people. The study sought to get an insight regarding the similarity exhibited by young people in performances under similar situations. Young people should develop models to easily respond as well as interpret the scenarios in a very effective way (Dweck and Leggett, 1988). As such, the framework was based on the one’s conception that later indicated particular motivational and behavioral response when an event was encountered.

Notably, the goal is often expressed in as an action or an aim of the individual based on the framework (Nijman et al., 2006). Similarly, the individual concept advances behavioral patterns, which could be based on performance and learning. The fact that Dweck and Leggett research was only conducted in children, it was realized that adults also exhibited the same traits well (Colquitt & Simmering, 1998). According to the theory of Dweck and Leggett (1988), they came up with two classes of goals namely; learning goals and performance goals. As such, the theory of Performance Goal Orientation was characterized by describing the individuals that were more concerned about achieving favorable ratings for their capabilities. Precisely, more often people will always choose objectives, which are achievable within a short time frame to be lauded by others (Chiaburuet al., 2010).

Secondly, the learning goal orientation discusses about those people who are more concerned about increasing their own competence or getting new ideas (Ford et al. 1998). The personal selection on goal orientation can be based on self -motivation (Birdi& Reid, 2013). In this case, the motivational factors emanate from openness avoidance levels towards different situations. According to Merriam & Leahy (2015), the significance of goal orientation is all about understanding about how people react to the situations of achievement. The traits pattern of an individual within goal orientation preference could be referred to as predictors (Colquitt & Simmering, 1998). Evidently, such allegations were established by the research, which was conducted on goal orientation (Dweck & Leggett, 1988). As such, the study was attributed largely to the orientation goals and how people perceived their self-intellectual capability. The learning orientation process perceives personal capability from a perspective of increasing aspect. The aspect of cognition is multifaceted and could be developed via experience as well as learning. As such, hard work and capability are considered as positive associates (Dweck & Leggett, 1988, p. 258). Similarly, the positive associates were the same as those studies cited by Noe and Schmitt‘s to school administrators motivation. The capability is believed to be uncontrollable and fixed (VandeWalle & Cummings, 1997). However, people who are driven by performance will consider attainment while measuring for capability; thus, trainees are likely to develop fears of underperforming in their tasks (Dweck & Leggett, 1988).

More often, an individual’s goal orientation later causes a negative influence on how the trainee considers hard work (Nijman et al., 2006). Trainees who are objective oriented pursue adjustable responses to different scenarios. Such may encompass mindset adjustments towards finding proper solution (Holton, 2005). Therefore, motivation considers task challenges that cause further development within an individual (Merriam & Leahy, 2015). Notably, individuals who are dependent on performance always opt for adaptive approaches in objective attainment; this may include the strong desires of the trainee to pull out from the task making negative attributes regarding capability. In this regard, it is clear for one to understand why there is a decline in individual desire or significance in achieving objectives that have been set (Dweck & Leggett, 1988).

The study undertaken by Colquitt and Simmering (1998) was further modified by Ford who conducted the research on relationship on the following factors; cognitive activity, goal orientation, and practice methods within the environment training. In addition, he was able to allow the trainees to have their chosen activities and training programs. According to this theory, manipulating training activities amongst trainees could enhance acquisition of knowledge as well as shift complex skills to the workplace. In this case, the theory model was conducted to enable one understand the relationship that existed between cognitive ability, training and orientation of objectives. According to this theory, a trainee’s objective orientation is likely to influence techniques adopted in the training process, and which are positively associated with metacognive activity and being open towards the training activity. However, people who value performance, consider efficiency a critical aspect in the learning process, thus apply strategies that achieve the objectives without straining in the learning process.

In addition, performance-oriented persons or trainees negatively relate the metacognitive activities. The research model was conducted on 93 undergraduate students who had been admitted to the university to study the psychology course. In this case, the participants were managed under the computer-simulated work as the naval operator radar. As such, the work of the naval operator was to do the tracking on a number of naval targets. Thereafter, the naval operator would then be able to determine whether the target was friendly or unfriendly within the shortest time possible. The naval operator then would finally command certain responses by either allowing the ship to proceed in a safer manner and respond to the threats promptly. If the participants had failed to do so then marks were deducted from the examination the participant had done. In the preparation of the work, the participants are permitted to select the training scenarios for the training. In this case, the preparation for the training scenery had some stress to the participants especially negative penalties that adversely cost them. The threat penalty circle resulted into penalties that caused the deduction of marks of the participants.

This process involved three training days and participants were allowed to choose to have answers using feedback alternative in software. Notably, when the training ended, those people being trained were required to show their capability on how they could undertake tasks that are simulated by a computer in their capacity as military engineers during experiments that lasted for only ten minutes. Furthermore, there were two more additional work components, which were incorporated during the second training session. In this regard, the initial trial had ambiguity caused by cues within the data being evaluated within the five-point decision example. The decision ascertained on had to ascertain on the possible fear; in this case, every trainee in the program was able to practice through single selection scenario that presented three levels of complexity and intensity.

Participants could choose 15 scenarios of practicing the tasks. Each case represented a different complexity level. Each respondent was given a matrix for selecting and arranging the training as they desired. At the end of training, all respondents were given 12 practice trials of five minutes followed by completing a survey tool accompanied by a transfer activity of 12 minutes. Activities to be transferred was characterized by greater complexity and level of intensity compared to all training exercises. A survey of forty-five questions linked to knowledge, training activity and goal orientation was used. More training progression was monitored to assess whether the respondent followed a training process that is complex. Overall, the activity being transferred was evaluated basing on how the individual performed. Evaluation of performance was undertaken using a grading mechanism with circled penalties, and when respondents located a target with 5 points. In the end, investigators created conceptualized models representing the respondents’ selection as well as training process. The model was developed with a structure of four parts that include:

 Individual variations as indicated in performance orientation or learning

 Learning methods identified as activity level, identical elements, and metacognition

 Learning Outcomes denoted as self-efficacy, performance, final training, and knowledge

 Transfer identified as final performance

The conceptual model design is in the form of a dynamic model. The growth starts from personal variations whereby a person chooses a learning technique alongside causal links toward a kind of performance result. An individual’s goal orientation offers a parameter for action regarding the way he/she acquires the skills taught. In view of this, an assumption indicating depiction of correlations via a specified variable within the models along with a single goal orientation exists. To determine these correlations and the model, data was evaluated regressively. Inclusion of the variables in the analysis equation depends upon their arrangement within the framework.

Outcomes show the difference that characterizes the two constructs, that is, performance and learning. Additionally, the constructs are linked differently with additional aspects within the conceptualized framework. An initial examination of the influence from learning techniques as well as orientation of the objectives formed the analysis for the three learning results. Finally, the manner in which the transferred performance is affected by the three learning outcomes, learning strategies and goal orientation on transfer performance was investigated. Significant correlations in terms of statistics constituted learning orientation that had a positive correlation with metacognition; however, neither of the two forms of orientation, that is, performance and learning had any connection with common aspects of tasks. From the outcomes, it can be inferred that a positive correlation between knowledge and metacognition, and between activity and knowledge. Additionally, a positive correlation existed between the level of tasks and the performance being transferred and metacognition. Finally, self-efficiency alongside orientation of objectives constituted a critical part. Notably, literacy orientation along with self-efficiency was related positively, whereas self-efficacy and goal orientation were related negatively. Simply put, this study shows that learning-minded individuals are linked to positive learning results than people who are driven by performance are. People who are driven by performance display greater relations towards neutral literacy results.

This study’s importance of the study lies in its ability to indicate the correlation separating specific constructs from goal orientation constructs represented within the conceptual model of the study. An individual’s ability of knowledge acquisition coupled with the way such knowledge is transferred is on a level linked to personality and the manner in which an individual interacts with the surroundings as illustrated in subsequent learning behavior as well as orientation. Apart from cognition, an individual’s ability to decipher the concept taught draws influence from other aspects as well. An individual’s behavior (personality) constitutes an aspect that should be considered to determine the way an individual acquires knowledge and skills in the learning process. Within the survey, people with orientation for learning faced training with greater cognitive ability than those that are oriented in performance. The approaches used by trainees in the training process replicates the outcomes obtained from studies undertaken by Nijman et al. (2006) regarding orientation of objectives.

An individual commences training using personality and cognitive traits, which would affect the mode of behaving, how the face training, as well as the way the skills acquired are transferred. Additionally, a factor associated with learning acquired in the current survey revolves around modes of personal selection of training techniques individuals adopt. An individual’s capability of choosing acquisition strategies basing upon the understanding that exists for individual limitations as well as abilities tends to be constructive, especially how learning is created for increase of the learning experience. However, this attribute is linked to people with high meta-cognitive ability and learning orientation.

As the studies indicate, questions alongside issues exist with regard to orientation of objectives as well as towards the survey. Conversely, performance-oriented people failed to get proper response in the training. When facilitators utilized clear response mechanisms within the training, the outcomes of the performance-oriented person compared to the learning-minded person would remain different in terms of statistics as the study discovered. Moreover, general questions associated with goal orientation remain, for instance, if goal orientation is altered overtime, and if that is the case, which means can be used to achieve it. Does orientation of objectives constitute a strong attribute or whether one can create it? If one has significant knowledge and skill about a particular concept, will these affect the way objectives are oriented within training scenarios. Although the aforementioned questions and potential within future studies still exist, the survey offers extensive understanding of learning techniques, meta-cognitive activity, goal orientation, and the way such concepts are associated with transfer and training.

With regard to factors linked to the level of organization, Nijman et al. (2006) considered work environment and transferring conditions critical in enhancing transfer. Transfer climate encompasses several factors including peer and supervisory support, but also extrinsic and intrinsic rewards for applying new knowledge, opportunities of using new knowledge, practice opportunities, training accountability, and task cues. Work environment factors comprise of socio-technical system design-variables (such as information sharing, employee involvement and promoting job involvement), job design variables (for instance, job match, promoting task autonomy), quality management variables (for instance, customer focus, the commitment demonstrated by workers), alongside dynamic variables of learning (for instance, rewards for learning, prioritizing dynamic training learning). Having 301 workers as a sample within a US marketing department, Merriam and Leahy (2015) discovered evidence that supports predictors of motivation for transferring performance, and work climate.

Even though allegations indicating the critical nature of transfer scenarios in the learning process exist, researches undertaken empirically on the issue tend to generate inconsistent outcomes. (Holton, 2005) discovered the successful nature of post-training initiatives within scenarios considered to be complementary to employees’ aspirations at the workplace. Dermol and Carter (2013) did not find any impact emanating from the support of supervisors instead; they found constructive outcomes for support from peers within three studies involving 178-workers who had received training. Additionally, Bhatti et al. (2013) did not find any impact associated with the support of supervisors in four surveys conducted amongst cashiers in a money-lending firm. A critical research that can help one to understand the variety of outcomes emanates from Barnard (2005) that investigated the support of supervisors as well as peers towards training transfer, Barnard (2005).

Baldwin and Ford‘s study (1988) confirms the learning application of Chiaburu and Marinova by asserting that the acquired trait should be generalized to the context of the and maintained for a specified period for effectiveness. Additionally, Lancaster et al.’s work (2013) indicates the learning application concept by stating that for successful transfer to take place, a constructive shift within performance should exist. However, the works of Lancaster et al. (2013) did not investigate system-wide aspects to ascertain if the process of training did not offer the change required nor did the survey consider the impediments, which are faced by trainees when trying to transfer the learning to the place of work. When learning cannot be transformed to performance, which may be visible in the workplace, the training outcomes within the context of job performance is negligible (Birdi& Reid, 2013). Costs linked to the training would not be considered cost-effective for the organization unless there is achievement of application with regard to improved or increased employee performance. Therefore, training transfer efficiency is indicated by some kind of improvement in performance (Velada et al. 2007). Knowledge application is transferrable in a manner that is demonstrated by the trainee; this is noticed at the workplace. Therefore, Thus, the complexity linked to transfer requires investigation. Building on the transfer concepts, the framework found in transfer of training require further investigation in the structure of the organization. The function of training transfer research entails formulating and understanding the process of learning and the way learning is transferred in organizational and individual perspectives.


Table 2.1 Principles of Training Design Principles (Baldwin &Ford, 1988)

Identical features “Transfer increases to the level that response elements and identical stimulus in the transfer and training environments.”
General rules “Transfer increases when trainees are taught theoretical principles, general rules, and applicable skills underlying the training content.”
Stimulus variability Constructive transfer increases when different training stimulus is used.”
Practice conditions “Practice conditions include several specific issues of design, including over learning, feedback, part, or full training, distributedor massed training.”


About 25 studies were investigated with regard to the attributes of the trainee. Baldwin and

Ford (1988) identified 9 elements, which influence transfer conditions as well as training output from the studies. The nine characteristics include:

· Informed decision/realistic information

· Relapse prevention

· Training selection

· Feedback

· Goal setting

· Trainee’s intelligence level

· Perceived training value

· Need for Achievement

· Job involvement.

Summary of Literature

Transfer of training is a critical factor in the organizational processes of a business setting. The costs linked to training workers and the required performance outcomes are indispensable for organizations to succeed. The transfer process encompasses three key elements namely the organization setting, the training, and the trainee. The review of literature indicates that transfer should incorporate such aspects with the belief that transfer is continuous process, which is determined by the variation level that would be distinct to each individual and training situation. Thus, thus, transfer should be considered within the variation and interaction parameters. Due to the variations and distinctiveness, transfer researchers have resorted to investigate transfer elements holistically and individually to create a wide picture for the transfer process. Through this, the desire to investigate transfer across organizational environments becomes clear. The literature review offered a training transfer overview, including transfer models, and the significance of work environment, training and personal factors in training transfer, including the way learning transfer may be determined using Holton’s (2005) LTSI measuring tool. However, currently, no studies have examined the perceptions of Army leaders about supervisor and peer support behaviors in relation to the transfer of training. This study was aimed at filling this gap within the published literature.






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