Final Assignment

We looked at three different areas, Individual, Family and Relationship/Marriage, over the course of the semester.  For each area, we reviewed general information (power points), research articles, videos, TedTalks from experts in the field, guest speakers, and general discussion with your peers.  For the final paper, I would like for you to summarize each different area that we discussed.  For the summary, I would like for you to discuss the areas that stood out to you or were most meaningful to you personally.  This means you don’t need to recap everything just 3-5 points about each section that were meaningful to you and why.  I would also like you to answer 2 questions in each section. (1) What new thing did you learn that you were not previously aware of and (2) how will you apply this new information into your personal and/or professional life moving forward.

Assignment:  The paper will have three sections, Individual, Family, Relationship/marriage (please label each section).  In each section you will provide the following information:

– Summarize 3-5 points of information that were meaningful to you

– what new thing did you learn

– how will you apply the new information into your personal and/or professional life.

Make sure to reference material from the class to demonstrate understanding. 

Marriage and Family Interaction F258

Course requirements




Guest speakers

Group discussions








Role of genetics

Predetermination vs. influence

Nature vs. nurture





Who are you? How would you describe yourself to a stranger? How would your closest friends describe you? How did you become who you are today and what experiences have made you… you?

As we explore the concept of identity and its significance to who you are, I encourage you to keep thinking about everything that makes you unique. Then, ask yourself: how much can someone know about me just by my appearance—and, perhaps more importantly, how accurate would they be?




We are a combination of how we see ourselves and how others see us. The aspects of our “selves” that make up who we are, and the way we relate to social and historical categories, are called identities. Many of these aspects change over time. Therefore, our identities are not fixed and can shift based on context, experience, and many other factors.


The way we see ourselves is not always how we are viewed by others, which can lead to misunderstandings and conflicts in life.

Identity and SeLFHOOD


Your “Self” is the totality of your:




Characteristics Memories Personhood





Your “identity” is what it means to be “you” in a specific Context



The practices and categories you identify with

Your commitment to a set of: Goals, Values, Preferences, Interests












Gender identity

The way you view yourself as either male or female

Combination of biology and culture


Gender roles

The way in which the roles of being male or female are defined


Gender stereotyping

Broad cultural assumptions or expectations placed on females or males regarding roles, actions, titles, positions, attire, etc.



8 – 10


Social influences

Social theories of gender

Social role theory: Gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men

Psychoanalytic theory of gender: Preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent

Social cognitive theory: Children’s gender development occurs through observation and imitation of what other people say and do






Personality traits



Modeled by family

Modeled by peers

Socially accepted






Personality (5 factors)

O — Openness to Experience

Degree to which an individual engages in proactive efforts to seek out new experience for its own sake. Also, the degree to which they appreciate and value these experiences.

C – Conscientiousness

Work Ethic Level of organization, motivation, and thoroughness a person shows in life and in the pursuit of goals.



Personality (5 factors)

E — Extraversion

Delineates how energetic, enthusiastic and outgoing a person is.

Is related to level of confidence in social settings

A – Agreeableness

Describes how sensitive, caring, empathic, altruistic, trusting

N — Natural Reactions

How emotionally reactive is the individual

Moodiness, sensitivity/hypersensitivity to stress, emotional lability




Who am I?

Parenting style






8 – 15


Baumrind’s parenting styles

Authoritarian parenting

Parents exhort the child to follow their directions and to respect their work and effort

Allows little verbal exchange

Associated with children’s social incompetence

Authoritative parenting

Encourages children to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions

Extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed

Associated with children’s social competence




8 – 16


Neglectful parenting

Parent is uninvolved in the child’s life

Associated with children’s social incompetence and lack of self-control

Indulgent/Permissive parenting

Parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them

Associated with children’s social incompetence and lack of self-control





Who am I?

Self Concept

Social Identity theory


Moral Development

-Kohlberg’s theory



Who Am I?

Early Child Development



Secure: Have a positive view of relationships and find it easy to get close to others

Avoidant: Are hesitant about getting involved in romantic relationships

Anxious: Demand closeness, are less trusting, more emotional, jealous, and possessive



Who am I?


Erikson’s theory of Socioemotional Development

Initiative vs Guilt (3-5)

Industry vs inferiority (6-puberty)

Identity vs Role confusion (12-18)

Intimacy vs Isolation (early adulthood)


Social learning theory

Peer pressure/Group Think




8 – 20

Birth Order

Birth order

Compared with later-born children, firstborn children have been described as more adult-oriented, helpful, conforming, and self-controlled

Only Child- achievement oriented, leadership skills




SES (Socioeconomic Status)

Lower-SES parents:

More concerned that their children conform to society’s expectations

Create a home atmosphere in which it is clear that parents have authority over children, among others

Use more physical punishment

Are more directive and less conversational

Higher-SES parents:

More concerned with developing children’s initiative and delay of gratification

Less likely to use physical punishment

Create a home atmosphere in which children are more nearly equal participants and in which rules are discussed

Are less directive and more conversational


SES and school performance

13 – 22

The Transition From Adolescence to Adulthood



Markers of becoming an adult

Holding a full-time job

Economic independence

Taking responsibility for oneself







ACE’s (Adverse Childhood Experiences)

Adverse Childhood Experiences have been linked to

risky health behaviors,

chronic health conditions,

low life potential, and

early death.

As the number of ACEs increases, so does the risk for these outcomes.



There are 10 types of childhood trauma measured in the ACE Study.


Five are personal — physical abuse, verbal abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect.

Five are related to other family members: a parent who’s an alcoholic, a mother who’s a victim of domestic violence, a family member in jail, a family member diagnosed with a mental illness, and the disappearance of a parent through divorce, death or abandonment.

Prior to your 18th birthday:

Did a parent or other adult in the household often or very often… Swear at you, insult you, put you down, or humiliate you? or Act in a way that made you afraid that you might be physically hurt? No___If Yes, enter 1 __

Did a parent or other adult in the household often or very often… Push, grab, slap, or throw something at you? or Ever hit you so hard that you had marks or were injured? No___If Yes, enter 1 __

Did an adult or person at least 5 years older than you ever… Touch or fondle you or have you touch their body in a sexual way? or Attempt or actually have oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse with you? No___If Yes, enter 1 __

Did you often or very often feel that … No one in your family loved you or thought you were important or special? or Your family didn’t look out for each other, feel close to each other, or support each other? No___If Yes, enter 1 __

Did you often or very often feel that … You didn’t have enough to eat, had to wear dirty clothes, and had no one to protect you? or Your parents were too drunk or high to take care of you or take you to the doctor if you needed it? No___If Yes, enter 1 __


Were your parents ever separated or divorced? No___If Yes, enter 1 __

Was your mother or stepmother: Often or very often pushed, grabbed, slapped, or had something thrown at her? or Sometimes, often, or very often kicked, bitten, hit with a fist, or hit with something hard? or Ever repeatedly hit over at least a few minutes or threatened with a gun or knife? No___If Yes, enter 1 __

Did you live with anyone who was a problem drinker or alcoholic, or who used street drugs? No___If Yes, enter 1 __

Was a household member depressed or mentally ill, or did a household member attempt suicide?                        No___If Yes, enter 1 __

Did a household member go to prison? No___If Yes, enter 1 __


Now add up your “Yes” answers: _ This is your ACE Score


The first research results were published in 1998, followed by 57 other publications through 2011. They showed that:

childhood trauma was very common, even in employed white middle-class, college-educated people with great health insurance;

there was a direct link between childhood trauma and adult onset of chronic disease, as well as depression, suicide, being violent and a victim of violence;

more types of trauma increased the risk of health, social and emotional problems.

people usually experience more than one type of trauma – rarely is it only sex abuse or only verbal abuse.



Divorce May Increase the Risk for Mental Health Problems

Divorce May Increase Behavior Problems

Divorce May Affect Academic Performance

Children With Divorced Parents Are More Likely to Take Risks

Problems That May Extend Into Adulthood



According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 19.7 million American adults (aged 12 and older) battled a substance use disorder in 2017.

Almost 74% of adults suffering from a substance use disorder in 2017 struggled with an alcohol use disorder.

About 38% of adults in 2017 battled an illicit drug use disorder.

That same year, 1 out of every 8 adults struggled with both alcohol and drug use disorders simultaneously.

In 2017, 8.5 million American adults suffered from both a mental health disorder and a substance use disorder, or co-occurring disorders.

Drug abuse and addiction cost American society more than $740 billion annually in lost workplace productivity, healthcare expenses, and crime-related costs.


Young adults aged 18-25:

About 5.1 million young adults age 18 to 25 battled a substance use disorder in 2017, which equates to 14.8% of this population and about 1 in 7 people.

About 3.4 million young adults age 18 to 25 had an alcohol use disorder in 2017, or about 10% of young adults.

About 2.5 million young adults had an illicit drug use disorder in 2017, or about 7.3% of this population.

Heroin use among young adults between 18 and 25 years old doubled in the past decade.





In 2017, about 9.4% of men and 5.2% of women age 12 and older had a substance use disorder.

Men may be more likely to abuse illicit drugs than women, but women may be just as prone to addiction as men when they do abuse them.

Almost twice as many people who are unemployed struggle with addiction than those who are full-time workers, CNN Money Around 17% of the unemployed and 9% of the employed population struggle with a substance use disorder.9

Of the 2.3 million people in American prisons and jails, more than 65% meet the criteria for addiction.

Around 75% of individuals in a state prison or local jail who suffer from a mental illness also struggle with substance abuse, and the opposite is also true.



Mental Health

1 in 5 U.S. adults experience mental illness each year 1 in 25 U.S. adults experience serious mental illness each year 1 in 6 U.S. youth aged 6-17 experience a mental health disorder each year Suicide is the 2nd leading cause of death among people aged 10-34


Mental Health

You Are Not Alone

19.1% of U.S. adults experienced mental illness in 2018 (47.6 million people). This represents 1 in 5 adults.

4.6% of U.S. adults experienced serious mental illness in 2018 (11.4 million people). This represents 1 in 25 adults.

16.5% of U.S. youth aged 6-17 experienced a mental health disorder in 2016 (7.7 million people)

3.7% of U.S. adults experienced a co-occurring substance use disorder and mental illness in 2018 (9.2 million people)


Mental health

The Ripple Effect Of Mental Illness

People with depression have a 40% higher risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than the general population. People with serious mental illness are nearly twice as likely to develop these conditions.

19.3% of U.S. adults with mental illness also experienced a substance use disorder in 2018 (9.2 million individuals)

The rate of unemployment is higher among U.S. adults who have mental illness (5.8%) compared to those who do not (3.6%)

High school students with significant symptoms of depression are more than twice as likely to drop out compared to their peers

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