Eye Fixation Patterns








Long-Term Memory Article Review


Student’s Name: Samantha Turpin

Professor’s Name: Prof. Tuthill

Date: December 2, 2018










Long-Term Memory Article Review


The article reviewed in this essay is titled “adverse effects of GHB-induced coma on long-term memory and related brain function”. The authors define Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) as a drug that when abused, it leads to increase in the number of GHB-dependent patients as well as emergency attendances that are associated with GHB-induced coma. Studies that have been undertaken on animals have revealed that GHB is responsible for the induction of oxidative stress in the hippocampus, thus perpetrating impairments in the memory (Pereira et al., 2018). It should be understood that hippocampus is a brain part that is concerned with the short-term memory. Ideally, there cannot be long-term memory without short-term memory. The negative impacts of chronic use of GHB as well as GHB-induced coma on the functioning of human cognition and brain have not been identified through research (Pereira et al., 2018). This is a gap that this peer-reviewed article sought to fill.


The authors of the article conducted a cross sectional study to ascertain the impact of chronic use of GHB-induced coma and GHB use on the human brain functioning. In the research, the authors recruited 27 users of GHB who have at least four GHB induced comas (GHB-Coma), 27 users of GHB without coma (GHB-NoComa), and other 27 users of different drugs but have never used GHB (No-GHB). The authors ensured that the participants successfully completed spatial and verbal memory tests and appropriately encoded the associative memory when the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was taking place as a way of probing the functioning of the hippocampus (Pereira et al., 2018).


The data collected by the authors was analyzed the obtained results he authors recorded. The authors found that the group on GHB-Coma portrayed lower premorbid Intelligence Quotient (IQ) since the p value was 0.006 (Pereira et al., 2018). The performance of this group was poor on the test for verbal memory relative to the GHB-no Coma group that recorded a p value of 0.017. However, both groups yielded their respective results despite portraying similar education levels. Relative to the other two groups, the GHB-Coma ground indicated a lower left hippocampus (pSVC = 0.044) as well as the left lingual gyrus (pFWE = 0.017) activity (Pereira et al., 2018). The research revealed that there was a lower functional connectivity of the hippocampus with the left temporal cortex that was more superior in terms of the performance of the encoding disk task (pFWE = 0.017) of the associative memory (Pereira et al., 2018). However, the research revealed that there was insignificant distinction between the No-GHB group and the GHB-NoComa group.


From the results of the article, it was suggested that multiple use of GHB were associated with induction of comas, although lack of use of GHB is particularly associated with the differences in the working of the memory and brain that largely depends on memory. However, the causal link could not be obtained from the cross-sectional study performed by the authors. The results of the research revealed that there is need for public awareness regarding the negative health consequences of the use of GHB for related purposes of recreation, especially when it relates to comas that are GHB induced (Pereira et al., 2018).



Pereira, F. R., McMaster, M. T., Polderman, N., de Vries, Y. D., van den Brink, W., & van Wingen, G. A. (2018). Adverse effects of GHB-induced coma on long-term memory and related brain function. Drug and alcohol dependence190, 29-36.