Discussion- Disaster & Planning Recovery(W2) -APA- 250 Words

Discussion- Disaster & Planning Recovery(W2) -APA- 250 Words

Please provide references for your original postings in APA format.

Connect with a professional writer in 5 simple steps

Please provide as many details about your writing struggle as possible

Academic level of your paper

Type of Paper

When is it due?

How many pages is this assigment?

1. What is the difference between remote journaling and electronic vaulting?

2. Explain how a mutual agreement would work as a shared-site resumption strategy.

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

Chapter 03

Contingency Strategies for

IR/DR/BC

1

1

 

Objectives

Discuss the relationships between the overall use of contingency planning and the subordinate elements of incident response, business resumption, disaster recovery, and business continuity planning

Describe the techniques used for data and application backup and recovery

Explain the strategies employed for resumption of critical business processes at alternate and recovered sites

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

2

 

2

Introduction

Contingency planning (CP)

Preparing for the unexpected

Keeping the business alive

Incident response (IR) process

Detecting, evaluating, and reacting to an incident

Keeping business functioning if physical plant destroyed or unavailable

Business resumption plan

Used when IR process cannot contain and resolve an incident

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

3

 

3

Introduction (cont’d.)

Business resumption plan (BR plan) elements

Disaster recovery plan (DR plan)

Lists and describes efforts to resume normal operations at primary business places

Business continuity plan (BC plan)

Steps for implementing critical business functions until normal operations resume at primary site

Primary site

Location(s) where organization executes its functions

 

 

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

4

 

4

Introduction (cont’d.)

BRP, DRP and BCP

Distinct place, role, timing, and planning requirements

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

5

 

5

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

6

 

6

Introduction (cont’d.)

Organizations require:

Reliable method of restoring information and reestablishing all operations

Five key procedural mechanisms

Delayed protection

Real-time protection

Server recovery

Application recovery

Site recovery

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

7

 

7

Data and Application Resumption

Data backup: recovery from an incident

Snap-shot of data from a specific point in time

Data considered volatile and subject to change

Online backup, disk backup, and tape backup

Archive: recovery from threat to on-site backups

Long-term document or data file storage

Usually for legal or regulatory purposes

Data backup policy

Data files and critical system: daily

Nonessential files: weekly

 

 

 

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

8

 

8

Data and Application Resumption (cont’d.)

Retention schedule

Guides replacement frequency and storage duration

May be dictated by law

Routine critical data

Retain one or two most recent daily backup copies

Retain at least one off-site copy

Full backups of entire systems

Store at least one copy in a secure location

NIST backup and recovery strategies

Alternatives should be considered

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

9

 

9

Data and Application Resumption (cont’d.)

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

10

 

10

Online Backups and the Cloud

Online backup to third-party data storage vendor

Referred to as data storage “in the cloud”

Commonly associated with leasing resources

Raises security challenges

Descriptions

Software as a Service (SaaS)

Platform as a Service (PaaS)

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

Cloud deployment

Public cloud, community cloud, private cloud

 

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

11

 

11

Disk to Disk to Other: Delayed Protection

Organizations create massive arrays

Independent, large-capacity drives

Store information at least temporarily

Example: home users

Add external USB-mounted SATA 1–2 terabyte drives

Advantages

Precludes time-consuming nature of tape backup

Avoids tape costs and implementation challenges

At the individual-user level

Allows quick and easy recovery

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

12

 

12

Disk to Disk to Tape

Solves problem with massively connected storage area networks

Lack of redundancy if both online and backup versions fail

Uses secondary disk series to avoid the need to take the primary set offline for duplication

Reduces resource usage on the primary systems

Disk-to-disk initial copies

Can be made efficiently and simultaneously with other system processes

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

13

 

13

Disk to Disk to Cloud

Also called disk-to-disk-to-online

Aggregate all local backups to a central repository

Then back up repository to an online vendor

Benefits

Reduced risk of corruption to the confidentiality, integrity, availability of stored online data

Users can back up their data to a central location

Most providers use an encryption process

Can easily access data from Internet

Can automate the cloud backup process

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

14

 

14

Types of Backup

Full: complete system backup

Differential: files changed or added since full backup

Incremental: archive files modified since last backup

Requires less space and time than differential

Copy: set of specified files

Daily: only files modified on that day

All on-site and off-site storage must be secured

Fireproof safes or filing cabinets to store tapes

Encryption to protect online or cloud data storage

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

15

 

15

Tape Backups and Recovery: General Strategies

Traditional: cost-effective for large data quantities

Digital audio tapes (DATs), quarter-inch cartridge (QIC) drives, 8-mm tape, digital linear tape (DLT)

Tape-based backup and recovery process

Schedule backup coupled with storage arrangement

Six-tape rotation method: media used in rotation

Grandparent/Parent/Child method: retains four full weekly (Friday) backups and adds a full monthly backup

Drawbacks: equipment cost and time

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

16

 

16

Tape Backups and Recovery: General Strategies (cont’d.)

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

17

 

17

Redundancy-Based Backup and Recovery Using RAID

Redundant array of independent drives (RAID)

Uses multiple hard drives to store information

Provides operational redundancy by spreading out data and using checksums

RAID implementations

Failure Resistant Disk Systems (FRDSs)

Failure Tolerant Disk Systems (FTDSs)

Disaster Tolerant Disk Systems (DTDSs)

Does not address need for off-site storage

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

18

 

18

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

19

 

19

Redundancy-Based Backup and Recovery Using RAID (cont’d.)

RAID Level 0

Not a form of redundant storage

Creates one larger logical volume across several available hard disk drives

Disk striping

Data segments written in turn to each disk drive in the array

Disk striping without parity

Occurs when multiple drives combined in order to gain large capacity without data redundancy

Increased risk: losing data from a single drive failure

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

20

 

20

Redundancy-Based Backup and Recovery Using RAID (cont’d.)

RAID Level 1

Disk mirroring

Uses twin drives in a computer system

Computer records data to both drives simultaneously

Provides a backup if the primary drive fails

Expensive and inefficient media use

Same drive controller manages both drives

Disk duplexing

Each drive has its own controller

Can create mirrors and splits disk pairs to create highly available copies of critical system drives

 

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

21

 

21

Redundancy-Based Backup and Recovery Using RAID (cont’d.)

RAID Level 2

Specialized form of disk striping with parity

Uses the Hamming code

Specialized parity coding mechanism

Stores stripes of data on multiple data drives

Stores corresponding redundant error correction on separate error-correcting drives

Allows data reconstruction

If some data or redundant parity information lost

No commercial implementations

Not widely used

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

22

 

22

Redundancy-Based Backup and Recovery Using RAID (cont’d.)

RAID Levels 3 and 4

RAID 3 uses byte-level striping of data

RAID 4 uses block-level striping of data

Data segments stored on dedicated data drives

Parity information stored on a separate drive

One large volume used for data

Parity drive operates independently

Provides error recovery

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

23

 

23

Redundancy-Based Backup and Recovery Using RAID (cont’d.)

RAID Level 5

Balances safety and redundancy

Against costs of acquiring and operating systems

Similar to RAID 3 and 4 striping data across drives

Difference: no dedicated parity drive

Data segments interleaved with parity data

Written across all drives in the set

RAID 5 drives can be hot swapped

Replaced without taking entire system down

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

24

 

24

Redundancy-Based Backup and Recovery Using RAID (cont’d.)

RAID Level 6

Combination of RAID 1 and RAID 5

Block-level striping with double-distributed parity

Systems recover from two simultaneous drive failures

RAID Level 7 (proprietary)

Array works as a single virtual drive

May run special software over RAID 5 hardware

RAID Level 0+1

RAID 0 for performance; RAID 1 for fault tolerance

Striping, then mirroring

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

25

 

25

Redundancy-Based Backup and Recovery Using RAID (cont’d.)

RAID Level 1+0

RAID 0 for performance; RAID 1 for fault tolerance

Mirroring, then striping

RAID Level 5+1

Raid 5 used for robustness

Adds a separate data parity drive not found in RAID 5

Also known RAID 53

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

26

 

26

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

27

 

27

Database Backups

Considerations

May or may not back up using operating system utilities

May or may interrupt database use

Must properly safeguard database

Special journal file requirements: run-unit journals or after-image journals

Applications to protect databases in near real time

Legacy backup applications (lock and copy)

Online backup applications (to online vendor)

Continuous database protection (near real time)

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

28

 

28

Application Backups

Applications using file systems and databases

Some may invalidate customary backup and recovery

Include application support and development team members

In the planning process, and in training, testing, and rehearsal activities

Advances in cloud computing

Example: an organization leasing SaaS

Using applications on someone else’s systems

Service agreement should include recovery contingencies

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

29

 

29

Backup and Recovery Plans

Backups must successfully restore systems

To an operational state

Backup and recovery settings

Provide with complete recovery plans

Periodically

Develop plans

Test plan

Rehearse plans

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

30

 

30

Backup and Recovery Plans (cont’d.)

Developing backup and recovery plans

How and when will backups be created?

Who will be responsible for creation of the backups?

How and when will backups be verified so that they are known to be correct and reliable?

Who is responsible for the verification of the backup?

Where will backups be stored and for how long?

How often will the backup plan be tested?

When will the plan be reviewed and revised?

How often will the plan be rehearsed, and who will take part in the rehearsal?

 

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

31

 

31

Real-Time Protection, Server Recovery, and Application Recovery

Mirroring

Provides real-time protection and data backup

Duplicates server data using multiple volumes

RAID level 1 achieved with software or hardware

Can write to drives located on other systems

Can be extended to vaulting and journaling

Hot, warm, and cold servers

Hot server provides services to support operations

Warm server provides services if primary busy/down

Cold server used for administrator’s test platform

 

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

32

 

32

Real-Time Protection, Server Recovery, and Application Recovery (cont’d.)

Bare metal recovery technologies

Replace failed operating systems and services

Reboot affected system from CD-ROM or other remote drive

Quickly restore operating system

Providing images backed up from known stable state

Linux and UNIX versions abound

Windows just developing stand-alone bootable CD

Windows 7 can create a system repair disk

Windows systems can use setup disk to facilitate recovery and restoration

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

33

 

33

Real-Time Protection, Server Recovery, and Application Recovery (cont’d.)

Application recovery or clustering plus replication

Software replication provides increased protection against data loss

Clustering services and application recovery

Similar to hot, warm, and cold redundant server model

Common to install applications on multiple servers

Application recovery software

Detects primary application server failure

Activates secondary application server

Vaulting and journaling

Dramatically increase protection

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

34

 

34

Electronic Vaulting

Bulk transfer of data in batches to an off-site facility

Via leased lines or data communications services

Primary selection criteria

Service costs, bandwidth, stored data security, recovery, and continuity

Data transfer without affecting other operations

Scale purchases according to needs

Vendor managed solutions use software agent

Initiate full backup; continuously copies data

Data accessed via Web interface or software

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

35

 

35

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

36

 

36

Remote Journaling

Transfers live transactions to an off-site facility

Only transactions transferred (not archived data)

Transfer performed online; much closer to real time

Involves online activities on a systems level

Data written to two locations simultaneously

Can be performed asynchronously

Facilitates key transaction recovery in near real time

Journaling may be enabled for an object

Operating system creates record of object’s behavior

Stored in a journal receiver

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

37

 

37

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

38

 

38

Database Shadowing

Combines e-vaulting with RJ

Writes multiple database copies simultaneously in two separate locations

Used with multiple databases on a single drive in a single system or with databases in remote locations, across a public or private carrier

Generally used for immediate data recovery

Works well for read-only functions

Data warehousing and mining, batch reporting cycles, complex SQL queries, local online access at the shadow site, load balancing

 

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

39

 

39

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

40

 

40

Database Shadowing (cont’d.)

Database replication

Backup of multiple copies of the database for recovery purposes

Three types

Snapshot replication

Merger replication

Transaction replication

E-vaulting, RJ, and database shadowing

Quickly becoming functions of various backup applications rather than services unto themselves

Organizations increasingly focus on availability

 

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

41

 

41

Network-Attached Storage and Storage Area Networks

NAS uses single device or server attached to a network with common communications methods to provides online storage environment

Good for general file sharing or data backup use

SANs uses fiber-channel direct connections between systems needing additional storage and storage devices themselves

Good for high-speed and higher-security solutions

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

42

 

42

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

43

 

43

Network-Attached Storage and Storage Area Networks (cont’d.)

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

44

 

44

Virtualization

Development and deployment of virtual rather than physical systems and services implementations

“Virtual machine”

Virtualized environment operating in or on a host platform

Host platform (host machine)

Physical server (and operating system)

Virtualization application and all virtual machines run on it

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

45

 

45

Virtualization (cont’d.)

Virtual machine (guest)

Hosted operating system or platform running on the host machine

Hypervisor or virtual machine monitor

Specialized software that enables the virtual machine to operate on the host platform

Types

Hardware-level virtualization

Operating system-level virtualization

Application-level virtualization

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

46

 

46

Virtualization (cont’d.)

Three applications dominate virtualization market

Microsoft’s Virtual Server

VMware’s VMware Server

Oracle VM VirtualBox

Virtualization is important to contingency planning

Allows easily and accurate entire system backup

Can create snapshot backups, load into a new host running the same virtualization application

No need to purchase and set up multiple pieces of hardware

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

47

 

47

Site Resumption Strategies

Items requiring alternate processing capability

Disaster recovery plan implemented because primary site temporarily unavailable

Business continuity strategy to institute operations at an alternate site

Contingency management planning team (CPMT)

Chooses strategy often based on cost

Exclusive control options

Hot sites, warm sites, and cold sites

Popular shared-use options

Timeshare, service bureaus, and mutual agreements

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

48

 

48

Exclusive Site Resumption Strategies

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

49

 

49

Hot Sites

Fully configured computer facilities with all services, communications links, and physical plant operations

Can establish operations at a moment’s notice

Can be staffed around the clock to transfer control almost instantaneously

Requires e-vaulting, RJ, or data shadowing

Disadvantages: most expensive alternative

Must provide maintenance for all systems, equipment

Ultimate hot site: mirrored site identical to primary site

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

50

 

50

Warm Sites

Provide similar services and options as a hot site

Software applications not included, installed, or configured

Frequently includes computing equipment and peripherals with servers; no client workstations

Has connections to facilitate quick data recovery

Some advantages of a hot site, but at a lower cost

May require hours, perhaps days for full functionality

Customized costs

Range upward of several thousand dollars per month

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

51

 

51

Cold Sites

Provide only rudimentary services and facilities

No computer hardware or peripherals provided

All communication services must be installed after site occupied

No quick recovery or data duplication functions

Empty room with standard heating, air conditioning, and electrical service

Advantages

Better than nothing; reduced contention for floor space

Cost: few thousand dollars per month

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

52

 

52

Mobile Sites and Other Options

Rolling mobile sites

Storing resources externally

Rental storage area containing duplicate or second-generation equipment can be used

Similar to Prepositioning of Overseas Materiel Configured to Unit Sets (POM-CUS) Cold War sites

Might arrange with a prefabricated building contractor

Provide immediate, temporary facilities (mobile offices) on site in the event of a disaster

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

53

 

53

Shared-Site Resumption Strategies

Time-share

Operates like hot/warm/cold site

Leased in conjunction with a business partner or sister organization

Provides DR/BC option while reducing overall cost

Disadvantages

Facility made be needed simultaneously

Need to stock facility with equipment and data from all involved organizations

Complex negotiating

Party may exit agreement or sublease their options

 

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

54

 

54

Shared-Site Resumption Strategies (cont’d.)

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

Service bureaus

Service agency that provides a service for a fee

Service in the case of DR/CP

Provision of physical facilities in the event of a disaster

Agencies frequently provide off-site data storage (fee)

Service bureaus contracts

Specify exactly what the organization needs under what circumstances; guarantees space when needed

Disadvantages

Expensive option

Must be renegotiated periodically

 

55

 

55

Shared-Site Resumption Strategies (cont’d.)

Mutual agreements

Contract between two organizations

Assist the other in the event of a disaster

Obligation to provide necessary facilities, resources, services until receiving organization recovers

Other agreements provide cost-effective solutions

Between divisions of the same parent company

Between subordinate and senior organizations

Between business partners

Memorandum of agreement (MOA)

Defined expectations and capabilities for alternate site

 

 

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

56

 

56

Service Agreements

Contractual documents guaranteeing certain minimum levels of service provided by vendors

Must be reviewed and, in some cases, mandated to support incident, disaster, and continuity planning

Should contain information on:

What the provider is promising

How the provider will deliver on those promises

Who will measure delivery and how

What happens if provider fails to deliver as promised

How the SLA will change over time

Refer to sample at end of chapter

 

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

57

 

57

Definition of Applicable Parties

Introductory paragraph in any legal document

Serves to identify to whom the document applies

Contractual legal documents

Long formal names of the parties may be replaced with abbreviated names

Example: “the Client” “the Vendor” or “the Service Provider”

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

58

 

58

Services to be Provided by the Vendor

Vendor or service provider specifies exactly what the client receives in exchange for payment

If not explicitly identified, vendor not required to provide it

Verbal agreements, compromises, or special arrangements must be fully documented

Specifies protection and restoration of services if incident or disaster occurs

May include contingency operations

Refer to Sample Service Agreement at end of chapter

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

59

 

59

Fees and Payments for These Services

Indicates what vendor receives in exchange for the services rendered

Most common exchange: financial

May see exchange of services, goods, or other securities

Contract terms and any special fees specified

Common inclusion: “2/10 net 30”

Two percent discount if paid within 10 days

Net payment due in 30 days

Usually for shipped goods paid by invoice

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

60

 

60

Statements of Indemnification

Statements indicating vendor not liable for actions taken by the client

If vendor incurs financial liability based on use of the vendor’s services

Client responsible for those costs

Failure to include such statements

May result in additional legal fees from both parties as vendor sues to recoup its losses

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

61

 

61

Nondisclosure Agreements and Intellectual Property Assurances

Covers information confidentiality from everyone unless court mandated

Vendors certify document validity

Provides information as required

Client and vendor must formalize expectations

Regarding protection of confidentiality of the services and business information to be shared

Laws permit provider to view clients’ system contents in routine business conduct and maintenance

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

62

 

62

Noncompetitive Agreements (Covenant Not to Compete)

Not essential to a service agreement

Customary client agreements

Not to use the vendor’s services to compete directly with the vendor

Not to use vendor information to gain a better deal with another vendor

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

63

 

63

Chapter Summary

CP: prepare for the unexpected, keep business alive

Business resumption (BR) elements: DR, BC plans

Components come into play at specific times

Five key procedural mechanisms

Delayed protection, real-time protection, server recovery, application recovery, and site recovery

Backup plan is essential

Types: full, differential, and incremental

Determine how long data should be stored

RAID systems overcome tape backup limitations

 

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

64

 

64

Chapter Summary (cont’d.)

Cloud backups ensure data availability for quick restoration

Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

Databases require special considerations when planning backup and recovery procedures

Must restore system to operational state

Server support features

Mirroring and duplication of server data storage with RAID techniques

 

 

 

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

65

 

65

Chapter Summary (cont’d.)

Methods of transferring data off-site

Electronic vaulting (e-vaulting), remote journaling, and database shadowing

Business resumption strategies

Hot sites, warm sites, cold sites, time-share, service bureaus, and mutual agreements

Service agreements

Contractual documents guaranteeing certain minimum service levels provided by vendors

 

 

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery, 2nd Edition

66

 

66