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Discussion

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Instructions: You will describe two take-aways for each chapter. Each take-away will consist of three to five sentences describing your key thoughts or ideas.

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Chapter 3

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2.

Chapter 4

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2.

CHAPTER 3

Individual Differences and Emotions

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

 

 

1

Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer

3.1 How does understanding the relative stability of individual differences benefit me?

3.2 How do multiple intelligences affect my performance?

3.3 How does my personality affect my performance at school and work?

3.4 How do self-evaluations affect my performance at work?

3.5 What is emotional intelligence and how does it help me?

3.6 How can understanding emotions make me more effective at work?

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

 

2

How Does Who I Am Affect My Performance?

We all differ along a vast number of personal attributes.

How we differ has been shown to influence how we approach each of the following:

Work

Solving problems

Conflict

Interactions with co-workers

 

 

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

 

3

The Differences Matter

Which individual differences do you think managers can influence?

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

 

4

Test Your OB Knowledge (1 of 6)

Maria is a manager for Greens and Grits. Maria would like to improve job satisfaction for her employees. She can accomplish this by implementing different policies dealing with

personality.

intelligence.

cognitive ability.

emotions and attitudes.

All of the above.

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The answer is D. Emotions and attitudes, as these are relatively flexible.

5

Intelligence: There Is More to the Story Than IQ (1 of 2)

Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences (MI)

Linguistic

Logical-mathematical

Musical

Bodily-kinesthetic

Spatial

Interpersonal

Intrapersonal

Naturalist

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Howard Gardner, a professor at Harvard’s Graduate School of Education, investigated this issue for years and summarized his findings in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.

 

The eight different intelligences he identified include not only mental abilities, but social and physical abilities and skills as well.

 

6

Intelligence: There Is More to the Story than IQ (2 of 2)

We also have practical intelligence

The ability to solve everyday problems by utilizing knowledge gained from experience in order to purposefully adapt to, shape, and select environments

 

We all have strengths and weakness, so knowledge of our intelligences may help in

Choosing a career or selecting the best candidate

Development of ourselves or others

 

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Practical intelligence is the ability to solve everyday problems by utilizing knowledge gained from experience in order to purposefully adapt to, shape, and select environments.

 

It involves changing oneself to suit the environment (adaptation), changing the environment to suit one’s needs or desires, (shaping), or finding a new environment within which to work (selection). One uses these skills to:

Manage oneself

Manage others

Manage tasks

 

 

7

Test Your OB Knowledge (2 of 6)

George does not score particularly well on standard IQ tests yet he has a unique ability to deal with complex interpersonal situations. What would explain this phenomenon?

practical intelligence

multiple intelligences

reasoning ability

emotions and attitude

gender.

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The answer is B. Multiple intelligences, as multiple intelligences addresses interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence.

8

The Big 5 Personality Dimensions

The combination of stable physical, behavioral, and mental characteristics that give individuals their unique identities

Extroversion

Agreeableness

Conscientiousness

Emotional stability

Openness to experience

 

Comprised of five dimensions

 

What is Personality?

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Personality is defined as the combination of stable physical, behavioral, and mental characteristics that give individuals their unique identities.

 

These characteristics or traits—including how one looks, thinks, acts, and feels—are the product of interacting genetic and environmental influences and are stable over time and across situations and cultures.

 

Personality is a person input in the organizing framework.

 

9

What Does It Mean to Have a Proactive Personality?

You’re someone who is relatively unconstrained by situational forces and who affects environmental change.

You’re someone who identifies opportunities and acts on them.

 

The many benefits

Increased job performance

Higher job satisfaction

Higher affective commitment

Entrepreneurial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

 

10

Personality and Performance (1 of 2)

The strongest effects result when when both you and your manager have proactive personalities.

 

Conscientiousness has the overall strongest effect on job performance.

 

Extroversion has a smaller positive effect on job performance.

 

Those higher on agreeableness are more likely to seek new opportunities.

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

 

 

11

Personality and Performance (2 of 2)

The problem with workplace personality tests

Pre- and post-hire personality testing is fairly common

However, most personality test are not valid predictors of job performance, and here’s why

Test takers do not describe themselves accurately (faking).

Tests are bought off the shelf and given by untrained employees.

Personality tests are meant to measure personality, not what individual differences are needed to perform a particular job.

 

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Despite their widespread use, a panel of industrial-organizational psychologists concluded that the typical personality test is not a valid predictor of job performance.

 

One reason might be that many test-takers don’t describe themselves accurately but instead try to guess what answers the employer is looking for.

 

Another reason for the dismal results is that such tests are typically bought off the shelf and often given indiscriminately by people who aren’t trained or qualified.

 

While rigorous research shows that personality actually is related to performance, the effects are small. Moreover, and more importantly perhaps, the fact is that personality tests are designed to measure personality, not what individual differences are needed to perform at a high level in a particular job.

 

This means that managers need different and better ways to measure personality if they want to select employees based on performance-conducive personality traits.

 

12

Test Your OB Knowledge (3 of 6)

Martha would like to hire employees who will be strong performers in her organization. Which of the Big Five personality dimensions should she try to make sure the new employees score high on?

extraversion

agreeableness

conscientiousness

emotional stability

openness to experience

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The answer is C. Conscientousness. Those scoring high on conscientiousness have a strong sense of purpose, obligation, and persistence and generally perform better.

13

Core Self-Evaluations and Your Performance

Core self-evaluations (CSEs)

 

A broad personality trait comprised of four narrow and positive individual traits

 

 

Generalized self-efficacy

Self esteem

Locus of control

Emotional stability

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

A narrow concepts perspective enables you to more precisely describe individuals.

 

People with high core self-evaluations see themselves as capable and effective.

 

Core self-evaluations (CSEs) represent a broad personality trait comprised of four narrower and positive individual traits

Generalized self-efficacy

Self-esteem

Locus of control

Emotional stability

 

CSEs have desirable effects on outcomes such as increased job performance, job and life satisfaction, motivation, organizational citizenship behaviors, and better adjustment to international assignments.

14

How Self-Efficacy Works

Self-efficacy is a belief about your chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task.

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Self-Esteem and Your Performance

Self-esteem is a general belief about your self-worth.

 

It is relatively stable across your lifetime but it can be improved.

 

Best to apply yourself to areas or goals that are important to you.

Why? In those areas your motivation will likely be highest and presumably you’ll work the hardest

 

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Self-esteem is your general belief about your own self-worth.

 

Personal achievements and praise tend to bolster one’s self-esteem, while prolonged unemployment and destructive feedback tend to erode it.

 

Self-esteem is measured by having people indicate their agreement or disagreement with both positive and negative statements about themselves.

 

Those who agree with the positive statements and disagree with the negative statements have high self-esteem. They see themselves as worthwhile, capable, and accepted. People with low self-esteem view themselves in negative terms. They do not feel good about themselves and are hampered by self-doubts.

16

Locus of Control and My Performance (1 of 2)

Locus of Control describes how much personal responsibility someone takes for their behavior and its consequences.

 

 

I make things happen.

I can determine my future.

I accept personal responsibility for failures.

Things happen to me.

I blame others for failures.

I can’t control the future.

External Locus of Control

Internal Locus of Control

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Locus of control is a relatively stable personality characteristic that describes how much personal responsibility you take for your behavior and its consequences.

 

People tend to attribute the causes of their behavior primarily to either themselves or environmental factors.

17

Locus of Control and My Performance (2 of 2)

In the workplace

Higher motivation

Higher expectations

Exert more effort when given difficult tasks

 

 

 

More anxious

Earn less, receive smaller raises

Less motivated by incentives

External Locus of Control

Internal Locus of Control

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Locus of control is a relatively stable personality characteristic that describes how much personal responsibility you take for your behavior and its consequences.

 

People tend to attribute the causes of their behavior primarily to either themselves or environmental factors.

18

Emotional Stability and My Performance

Linked to

Relaxed

Secure

Unworried

Less likely to experience negative emotions under pressure

 

Higher job performance

More organizational citizenship behaviors

Few counter-productive work behaviors

People High in Emotional Stability Tend to be:

What is Emotional Stability?

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Individuals with high levels of emotional stability tend to be relaxed, secure, unworried, and less likely to experience negative emotions under pressure.

 

In contrast, if you have low levels of emotional stability you are prone to anxiety and tend to view the world negatively.

 

How is this knowledge useful at work?

Employees with high levels of emotional stability have been found to

Have higher job performance, perform more organizational citizenship behaviors: OCBs—going above and beyond one’s job responsibilities.

Exhibit fewer counterproductive work behaviors: CWBs—undermining your own or others’ work.

19

Test Your OB Knowledge (4 of 6)

Joe was terminated from his job and believed the reason was his boss did not like him and his hard work was not appreciated. Joe likely has

high emotional stability.

an internal locus of control.

low self-efficacy.

an external locus of control.

low self-esteem.

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The answer is D. An external locus of control. Joe is blaming his termination on his boss instead of himself.

20

The Value of Being Emotionally Intelligent

Emotional intelligence (EI)

The ability to monitor one’s own emotions and those of others, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions

 

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Emotional intelligence is the ability to monitor your own emotions and those of others, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions.

21

Key Components of Emotional Intelligence

Personal Competence

Self-awareness

Self-management

Social Competence

Social awareness

Relationship management

Benefits/Drawbacks of EI

Better social relationships

Greater well-being

Increased satisfaction

No clear link to improved job performance

Research remains unclear

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Referred to by some as EI (used in this book) and others as EQ, emotional intelligence is a mixture of personality and emotions and has four key components

1. Self-awareness

2. Self-management

3. Social awareness

4. Relationship management

 

The first two constitute personal competence and the second two feed into social competence.

 

EI has been linked to better social relationships, well-being, and satisfaction across ages and contexts, including work.

 

Considered together, the results of EI research are mixed. To date, the research just isn’t clear.

 

22

Emotions and Performance

What are emotions?

 

Emotions are complex, relatively brief responses aimed at a particular person, information, experience, or event.

Emotions can change our psychological and physiological states.

There are both positive and negative emotions plus past versus future emotions.

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Emotions are complex, relatively brief responses aimed at a particular target, such as a person, information, experience, event, or nonevent. They also can change psychological and physiological states.

 

Importantly, researchers draw a distinction between felt and displayed emotions. For example, if your boss screams at you when she’s angry you might feel threatened or fearful (felt emotion). You might keep your feelings to yourself or begin to cry (either response is the displayed emotion). The boss might feel alarmed (felt emotion) by your tears but could react constructively (displayed emotion) by asking if you’d like to talk about the situation when you feel calmer.

 

Emotions also motivate your behavior and are an important means for communicating with others.

23

Managing Emotions at Work

Anger

People are angry about what happened or did not happen in the past.

Anger is a “backward-looking” or retrospective emotion.

 

Fear

People are afraid of things that might happen in the future.

Fear is a “forward-looking” or prospective emotion.

Knowing this, managers can guide their own actions as to how they communicate with employees knowing their reactions to events.

 

But, organizations have emotion display norms, or rules that dictate which types of emotions are expected and appropriate for their members to show.

 

 

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

 

24

Test Your OB Knowledge (5 of 6)

Liu has a goal to work hard and eventually apply for a promotion at the Great Grain Company. Liu is most likely to exhibit positive emotions if

the emotions are congruent with his goal.

he has emotional intelligence.

the emotions are incongruent with his goal.

he feels inadequate.

he had a bad experience being promoted at his former company.

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The answer is A. The emotions are congruent with his goal. The emotions are positive if they are congruent (or consistent) with his goal.

25

Test Your OB Knowledge (6 of 6)

Jessica would like to be a best-selling author. She studied OB and knows this will take at least 10,000 hours of deliberate practice. Jessica should do all of the following EXCEPT

identify aspects of performance that need improvement.

get a coach to receive feedback.

study other writers and their works.

take breaks to maintain concentration.

only practice as long as it remains fun.

 

 

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The answer is E. Only practice as long as it remains fun. Deliberate practice requires us to focus on things we are not good at doing. It would be more fun to repeat behaviors or activities at which we excel.

26

Individual Differences: Putting It All in Context

Figure 3.6 Organizing Framework for Understanding and Applying OB

Jump to Appendix 3 for description

Copyright 2014 Angelo Kinicki and Mel Fugate. All rights reserved. Reproduction prohibited without permission of the authors.

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

 

27

Appendix 1 The Differences Matter

Return to slide

Organizational, Internal Context

Important individual differences at work, moving from relatively fixed to relatively flexible:

Intelligence

Cognitive abilities

Personality

Core self-evaluations

Self-efficacy

Self-esteem

Locus of control

Emotional stability

Attitudes

Emotions

Individual level work outcomes would be job performance, job satisfaction, turnover, organizational citizenship behaviors, and counterproductive work behaviors.

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 2 How Self-Efficacy Works

Return to slide

The graphic outlines how self-efficacy works:

Sources of self-efficacy beliefs

Prior experience

Behavior models

Persuasion from others

Assessment of physical and emotional state

Feedback, self-efficacy beliefs

High: “I know I can do this job.”

Low: “I don’t think I can get the job done.”

Behavioral patterns under the high feedback: Be active, select best opportunities. Manage the situation, avoid or neutralize obstacles. Set goals, establish standards. Plan, prepare, practice. Try hard, preserve. Creatively solve problems. Learn from setbacks. Visualize success. Limit stress. This behavior can lead to success.

Behavioral patterns under the low self-efficacy: Be passive. Avoid difficult tasks. Develop weak aspirations and low commitment. Focus on personal deficiencies. Don’t even try, make a weak effort. Quit or become discouraged because of setbacks. Blame setbacks on lack of ability or bad luck. Worry, experience stress, become depressed. Think of excuses for failing. This behavior leads to failure.

 

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix 3 Organizing Framework for Understanding and Applying OB

Return to slide

The graphic shows the relationship between the three categories Inputs, Process, and Outcomes.

Inputs

Person Factors

Intelligences

Personality

Proactive personality

Core self-evaluation

Self-efficacy

Locus of control

Self-esteem

Emotional intelligence

Situation Factors

Leads to

Processes

Individual Level

Emotions

Group/Team Level

Group/team dynamics

Organizational Level

Leads to

Outcomes

Individual Level

Task performance

Work attitudes

Well-being/flourishing

Turnover

Career outcomes

Group/Team Level

Group/team performance

Group satisfaction

Organizational Level

Financial performance

Survival

Reputation

 

©McGraw-Hill Education.