Take-away #1 – Something you liked and why:
- Chapter 5
- Chapter 6
Take-away #2 – Something you disagreed with or want to know more about and why:
- Chapter 5
- Chapter 6
Foundations of Employee Motivation
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Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer
5.1 What is motivation and how does it affect my behavior?
5.2 How would I compare and contrast the content theories of motivation?
5.3 How would I compare and contrast the process theories of motivation?
5.4 How are top-down approaches, bottom-up approaches, and “idiosyncratic deals” similar and different?
The What and Why of Motivation
Motivation: the underlying psychological influences over our behavior or thoughts
Types of Motivation
Two Fundamental Perspectives on Motivation
Focus on identifying internal factors such as needs and satisfaction
Focus on explaining the process by which internal factors and environmental characteristics influence employee motivation
Test Your OB Knowledge (1 of 4)
Juan is trying to learn how to use advanced spreadsheet features. He is not getting the correct answers but he keeps trying. What is Juan exhibiting?
attention to detail
The answer is C. Persistence. Persistence represents how long an activity will be the focus of attention.
Content Theories of Motivation (1 of 3)
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Employees dislike work.
Can only be motivated with rewards and punishments.
Employees are self-engaged, committed, responsible, and creative.
Content Theories of Motivation (2 of 3)
Maslow’s need hierarchy
Content Theories of Motivation (3 of 3)
Using Maslow’s theory
To motivate employees
Remember employees have needs beyond a paycheck.
Focus on satisfying employee needs related to self-concepts.
Satisfied needs lose their potential.
Be careful when estimating employee’s needs.
Content Theories of Motivation: McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory
Prefers working on challenges
Best in situations in which performance is due to effort and ability
Prefers to work with other high achievers
Likes to work in teams with cooperation and collegiality
Tends to avoid conflict
Likes to be praised in private
Likes to be in charge
Likes to be in control of people and events
Appreciates being recognized
Content Theories of Motivation: Self-Determination Theory (1 of 2)
Needs are learned over time.
Three innate needs influence behavior.
Content Theories of Motivation: Self-Determination Theory (2 of 2)
Using self-determination theory
Managers should influence behavior by creating work environments that support each need.
Provide tangible resources, time, contacts, and coaching to improve competence.
Empower employees and delegate meaningful assignments and tasks to enhance feelings of autonomy.
Use fun and camaraderie to foster relatedness.
Test Your OB Knowledge (2 of 4)
Self-determination theory focuses on
three innate needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness.
lower order needs.
needs for power and affiliation.
The answer is A. Three innate needs – competence, autonomy, and relatedness.
Process Theories of Motivation
Equity (justice) theory
Equity theory is a model of motivation that explains how people strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges or give-and-take relationships.
The model is based on our evaluation and comparison of outputs and inputs with relevant others.
Elements of Equity Theory
Process Theories of Motivation: Justice Theory
Organizational justice refers to the extent to which people perceive that they are treated fairly at work.
Three types of justice
Process Theories of Motivation: Equity and Justice
Using equity and justice theories
Employee perceptions are what count.
Employees want a voice in decisions that affect them.
Employees should be given an appeals process.
Leader behavior matters.
A climate for justice makes a difference.
Process Theories of Motivation: Expectancy Theory
People are motivated to behave in ways that produce desired combinations of expected outcomes.
Applying Expectancy Theory
|FOR MANAGERS||FOR ORGANIZATIONS|
|Determine the outcomes that employees value.||Reward people for desired performance, and do not keep pay decisions secret.|
|Identify good performance so appropriate behaviors can be rewarded.||Design challenging jobs.|
|Make sure employees can achieve targeted performance levels.||Tie some rewards to group accomplishments to build teamwork and encourage cooperation.|
|Link desired outcomes to targeted levels of performance.||Reward managers for creating, monitoring, and maintaining expectancies, instrumentalities, and outcomes that lead to high effort and goal attainment.|
|Make sure changes in outcomes are large enough to motivate high effort.||Monitor employee motivation through interviews or anonymous questionnaires.|
|Monitor the reward system for inequalities.||Accommodate individual differences by building flexibility into the motivation program.|
Process Theories of Motivation: Goal-Setting Theory
Successful people have one thing in common…
their lives are goal oriented.
How Does Goal Setting Work?
Goals that are specific and difficult lead to higher performance.
Certain conditions are necessary for goal setting to work.
People need ability and resources.
People need to be committed to the goal.
Performance feedback and participation in deciding how to achieve goals are necessary but not sufficient.
Goal achievement leads to job satisfaction.
Mechanisms Behind the Power of Goal Setting
Goals direct attention
Goals regulate effort
Goals increase persistence
Goals foster task strategies and actions plans
Test Your OB Knowledge (3 of 4)
Jane believes if she works hard and takes an online class she will receive a promotion. What element of motivation does this represent?
The answer is C. Instrumentality.
Motivating Employees: Job Design
Altering jobs to improve the quality of employee job experience and level productivity
Top-Down Approaches to Job Design (1 of 4)
Conducts a business by standards established by facts or truths gained through systematic observation, experiment, or reasoning
Plus: increased efficiency and productivity
Negative: Encourages repetitive jobs which may lead to job dissatisfaction, poor mental health, stress, and a low sense of accomplishment and growth
Top-Down Approaches to Job Design (2 of 4)
Involves putting more variety into a worker’s job by combining specialized tasks of comparable difficulty
Calls for moving employees from one specialized job to another
Advantages of job rotation
Engagement and motivation increased
Increased worker flexibility and easier scheduling
Increased employee knowledge and abilities
Top-Down Approaches to Job Design (3 of 4)
Entails modifying a job such that an employee has the opportunity to experience greater
Top-Down Approaches to Job Design (4 of 4)
The Job Characteristics Model
The Job Characteristics Model
Increased job satisfaction
Enhanced employee intrinsic motivation
Bottom-Up Approaches to Job Design
Represents employees’ attempts to proactively shape their work characteristics, including
Scope, number and types of tasks
Quality and amount of interaction with others
Cognitive crafting: perception of or thinking about tasks and relationships in job
Motivating Employees Through Job Design
Idiosyncratic Deals (I-Deals)
The employment deals individuals negotiate for themselves, taking myriad forms from flexible schedules to career development
Drives employee intrinsic motivation
Test Your OB Knowledge (4 of 4)
Jorge would like to increase intrinsic motivation by giving his employees independence and discretion in certain aspects of their job. According to the job characteristics model, which core job dimension is he using?
The answer is C. Autonomy.
Employee Motivation: Putting It All in Context
Figure 5.11 Organizational Framework for Understanding and Applying OB
Copyright 2014 Angelo Kinicki and Mel Fugate. All rights reserved. Reproduction prohibited without permission of the authors.
Appendix 1 Content Theories of Motivation (2 of 3)
Maslow’s need hierarchy is represented with a pyramid.
Bottom level: Physiological, the most basic needs. Entails having enough food, air, and water to survive.
Next, going up: Safety, consists of the need to be safe from physical and psychological harm.
Next: Love, the desire to be loved and to love. Includes the needs for affection and belonging.
Next: Esteem, need for reputation, prestige, and recognition from others. Also includes need for self-confidence and strength.
At the top, self-actualization: Desire for self-fulfillment, to become the best one is capable of becoming.
Appendix 2 Elements of Equity Theory
The graphic outlines a person’s perceptions.
Outputs being pay, benefits, assignments, and the like. My ratio, “What am I getting out of my job?” versus Others’ ratio, “What are others getting out of their jobs?”
Inputs are time, skills, education, and the like. My ratio, “What am I putting into my job?” versus Others’ ratio, “What are others putting into their jobs?”
The results are Equity, “I’m satisfied. I see myself as faring comparably with others.” Negative inequity, “I’m dissatisfied. I see myself as faring worse than others.” Positive inequity, “Am I satisfied? I see myself as faring better than others.”
Appendix 3 Process Theories of Motivation: Expectancy Theory
Expectancy, “What are the chances of reaching my performance goal?”
Instrumentality, “What are the chances of receiving various outcomes if I achieve my performance goals?”
Valence, “How much do I value the outcomes I will receive by achieving my performance goals?”
Appendix 4 Motivating Employees: Job Design
The graphic shows the three different approaches to job design.
Historical, was a top down approach. Management designs the job.
Recent, is a bottom up approach. Employee or work teams design the job.
Emerging, is an idiosyncratic deal, or I deals, approach. Employee and management design job.
Appendix 5 Top-Down Approaches to Job Design (4 of 4)
Moderators. Not everyone wants a job covering all five characteristics. Job design is moderated by, 1, knowledge and skill, 2, growth need strength, 3, context satisfactions. These moderators will affect or moderate both the critical psychological states and the outcomes.
|Core job characteristics||Critical psychological states||Outcomes|
|Skill variety, task identity, task significance||Experienced meaningfulness of the work.||High intrinsic work motivations. High growth satisfaction. High general job satisfaction. High work effectiveness.|
|Autonomy||Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work.||High intrinsic work motivations. High growth satisfaction. High general job satisfaction. High work effectiveness.|
|Feedback from job||Gained knowledge of the actual results of the work activities.||High intrinsic work motivations. High growth satisfaction. High general job satisfaction. High work effectiveness.|
Appendix 6 Employee Motivation: Putting It All in Context
The Organizing Framework for Understanding and Applying OB shows the relationship between the three categories Inputs, Process, and Outcomes.
Person factors: personality, personal attitudes, values (Theories X and Y), needs
Situation factors: hygiene factors, motivating factors, job characteristics, job design, leadership, organizational climate
Individual Level: equity and justice, expectancy processes and goal-setting processes, and voice
Group/Team Level: climate for justice
Organizational Level: climate for justice
Individual Level: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, task performance, work attitudes, citizenship behavior, counterproductive behavior, and turnover
Group/Team Level: group and team performance
Organizational Level: customer satisfaction
In return, Outcomes relates to both Inputs and Processes.